American Journal of Agricultural Research

Development of Light Sensors to Measure Defoliation

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Development of Light Sensors to Measure Defoliation Christina Chiu, Marlowe Edgar Burce, Philip Virgil Astillo, Joe Mari Maja, Ahmad Khalilian, and Jeremy Greene Edisto Research and Education Center, Clemson University, Blackville, SC, USA Sensors have become valuable tools in agriculture when decisions regarding inputs require precision and speed. For example, factors in estimating defoliation in row crops, such as intensive labor and, in particular, subjectivity, are greatly reduced with the use of sensors that can remove these limitations and biases. Estimates of defoliation are almost always overestimated due to human error and biased, unconscious efforts to locate injury. To address these issues, the accuracy and preciseness of a light-based sensor to detect defoliation was tested by measuring simulated levels of defoliation (0-100%) on paper “leaves” at seven light intensities. Results indicated that higher lux values were detected through thinner paper (filter paper) than through thicker paper (cardstock), demonstrating that leaf thickness could potentially affect accuracy of the light-sensor system. Despite some light penetrating the thinner paper with simulated defoliation levels, the two light sensors tested yielded accurate and precise predictions of defoliation (R2 > 0.95). This light-sensor approach could potentially be used in the field to report real-time measurements of defoliation in row crops, such as soybeans, or in other plant-based systems where losses of leaf area require monitoring in order to prevent economic injury. Keywords: defoliation, soybean, peanut, light detection sensors, controller ...

The growth and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fed Parkia biglobosa meal based diet

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research The growth and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fed Parkia biglobosa meal based diet. Adewumi, A.A.1*; Akin-Obasola, B.J.2 and Oguntohun, O.G.1 1Dept. of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti 2Dept. Of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti The study investigated the growth and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings fed five iso-nitrogenus diets, containing fermented locust bean meal, at varying inclusion level (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) as replacement for fishmeal. Eight weeks feeding trial was conducted using Clarias gariepinus fingerlings which were randomly distributed into 12 bowls at a stocking rate of 20 fish per bowl, in replicates per treatment. The experimental design was completely randomized. The fish were fed at 5% body weight, twice daily. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets containing fermented locust beans meal at varying replacement level for fish meal designated as diet A0, B10, C20, D30, E40 and F50 were formulated and fed to the fish. All the experimental fish fed the various treatments showed increase in weight, carcass crude protein and lipid content, compared to the initial value indicating positive contribution of the various diets to growth of the fish. The results obtained indicated there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean weight gain, percentage weight gain. Specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio among the fish fed the various diets. The highest weight gain was recorded in the fish fed the control diet (2.47g) while the least was recorded for the fish fed the B20 diet (2.18g). This study revealed that locust bean seed if processed, as in fermentation, could replace fishmeal up to 50% level in the diet of C. fish. This level of inclusion would be a significant replacement for the expensive ...


Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ON PRODUCTION FUNCTION OF MANGO CULTIVATION IN THENI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU R. Vairama and B. Muniyandia aDepartment of Economics, Bharathiar University, and Professor and Head (Retd.), Department of Economics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore641 046, TN, India. Fruits and vegetables are considered to be the protective food because these help us to develop a defence mechanism in our body. Mango (Mangifera indica), which is the king of fruits for over 4000 years, is also our national fruit. There are more than thousand mango varieties in India. At present, India is one of the largest producers of mango, however, only about 30 varieties are grown on commercial scale in different states. Important mango varieties are cultivated in different states of India in which Tamilnadu cultivates the varieties like Banganpalli, Bangalora, Neelum, Rumani, and Mulgoa. More than 50 per cent of world mango production is contributed by India, but unfortunately mango productivity in the country is declining over the years. The productivity of Mango in Tamilnadu State was found to be low when compared to the National Average Productivity. The reason for this may the farmers are facing problems in processing and getting market information. The extension service providers also lack information on changing market needs and are not able to advise the producers appropriately. Hence this study is important and the results obtained will be utilized by the policy makers and the planners in horticulture and agriculture for further development of these sectors. An Economic Analysis Production Function of Mango Cultivation in Theni district. Keywords: Farmers, Mango cultivation, Cost-benefit analysis, ...

Effects of different fertilizers on growth, yield and root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp in Okra Abelmoschus esculentus under field condition in Summer Season in Chitwan, Nepal

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Effects of different fertilizers on growth, yield and root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp in Okra Abelmoschus esculentus under field condition in Summer Season in Chitwan, Nepal Subodh R. Pandeya, Sandesh Bhandaria , Kushal R. Giria, Pratikshya Waglea and Sundar Man Shresthab aUndergraduate Student, Faculty of Agriculture , Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan, Nepal; bProfessor, Department of Plant Pathology, Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan, Nepal An experiment was carried out at Agriculture and Forestry University, horticulture farm to determine the effects of different fertilizers on root knot nematode and yield on Okra (var. Arka Anamika) at summer season in inner terai region of Chitwan, Nepal. The treatment was carried out in the completely randomized block design (RCBD) with 7 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatment included: goat manure, sesame seed cake, mustard seed cake, poultry manure, furacron, vermicompost plus untreated control including only chemical fertilizer (NPK). All treatments were added to provide the sufficient amount of Nitrogen required for the crop as recommended by Nepal Agriculture Research Council. Remaining amount of required Phosphorous and potassium was supplied by adding Single Super Phosphate and Muriate of potash respectively. The germination percentage was found significantly superior in Furacron (93.33%) and followed by goat manure (92.67%), vermicompost (86.67%), sesame (til) seed cake (82.67%), mustard oilcake (81.67%), control i.e. NPK (76.67%) and poultry manure (61%). Similarly, In terms of number of galls , furacron (3.43) was found the most effective followed by goat manure (5.60), Poultry Manure (6.63), Mustard Seed Cake (8.47), Sesame cake (9.07), vermicompost (16.60) and control (21.96). In terms of yield, poultry manure (20mt/ha) was found superior followed by vermicompost (17.38mt/ha), goat manure (16.72 mt/ha), sesame (til) seed cake (16.62mt/ha), furacron (14.61 mt/ha), mustard oilcake (12.97 mt/ha) and control (10.51mt/ha). The highest net profit ...


Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research STUDY OF WHEAT FIELD WEEDS IN BIRATNAGAR, EASTERN NEPAL Pramod Sen Oli1, Usha Adhikari2, Raju Bhattarai3 1Department of Botany, Post Graduate Campus,Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar, Nepal 2Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal 3Department of Chemistry, Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Ghantaghar, Kathmandu, Nepal Triticum aestivum L. (Bread Wheat) is a graminoid species of plant in the family true grasses, with a self-supporting growth habit. It is second staple food for the people living in Nepal. Total 45 weed species were collected from wheat field belonging to 19 families and 39 genera. Triticum aestivum L. is greatly affected by different weeds. Most of the weeds can be used as fodder. Keywords: Wheat Field, Weed Flora, Herbarium, Fodder ...

Dr. Ajai Kumar Srivastav
Emeritus Professor, Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University

Dr. Osman Tiryaki
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Terzioglu Campus, 17020, ÇANAKKALE, TURKEY

Prof.Dr. Süleyman Taban
Professor, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Ankara University, Ankara-TURKEY

Dr. Nikolay Dimitrov Panayotov
Professor & Head, Department of Horticulture, Agricultural University

Dr.  Samuel Ohikhena Agele 
Lecture/Researcher, Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management, Federal University of Technology

Dr. Ghousia Begum
Principal Scientist, Toxicology Unit, Biology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

Dr. Sirisha Adamala
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Engineering, Vignan's University

Dr. Mala Trivedi
Professor, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, AUUP, Lucknow-226028

Dr Ambreesh Singh Yadav
Scientific Officer, U.P. Council of Agricultural Research, Lucknow, U.P., India

Dr. Abd El-Aleem Saad Soliman Desoky
Professor, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University

Dr. Chang-Hong Liu
Professor, School of life sciences, Nanjing University, P.R. China

Dr. İrfan Özberk
Professor & Head, Dept. of Field Crops, Fac. of Agri, The Univ. of Harran, Sanliurfa, Turkey

Dr. Papadakis Ioannis
Assistant Professor, Laboratory of Pomology, Agricultural University of Athens

Associate Professor & Head, Center for Research in Ethno & Medico Botany Dr. R.M.L. PG. College ( C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY)

Dr. Ayman EL Sabagh
Assistant professor, agronomy department, faculty of agriculture, kafresheikh university, Egypt; Visiting scientist at Field Crops Department ,Faculty of Agriculture , Cukurova University, Turkey

Dr. Alaa Jabbar Abd Al-Manhel
Assistant Professor, Agriculture college /Basra University

Dr. Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo
Scientist, Regional Research & Technology Transfer Station, (OUAT), Semiliguda

Dr. Sedat Karadavut
Assistant Professor, Agricultural Structers and İrrigation (Biosystems Engineering), Trakya University/TURKEY

Dr. Abhishek Naik
Area Manager, Technology development department

Dr. Ionel BONDOC
Associate Professor, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Iasi (ROMANIA), Department of Public Health

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American Journal of Agricultural Research