Most Cited

  • An Extensive Review on Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations

    The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the…

  • Skin Lightening and Management of Hyperpigmentation

    Skin color, along with hair and eye color, is genetically determined by the amount of melanin found in the top layers of skin. Its varied presence – which accounts for different skin colors – is linked to a population’s historic levels of sun exposure. Skin-lightening is just one of the multiple options for augmenting the skin’s surface appearance, including but not limited to tanning, scarification, makeup, tattooing, face lifts, nose jobs, botox, lip extensions, and piercings. Skin-bleaching practices, such as using skin creams and soaps to achieve a lighter skin tone, are common throughout the world and are triggered by cosmetic reasons that oftentimes have deep historical, economic, sociocultural, and psychosocial roots. The cosmetics industry has traditionally relied on convincing people that they are incomplete without a particular product. Yet, unlike makeup or fake tan, skin-whitening creams base beauty on a racial hierarchy, fueling intolerance and causing serious social harm. Lighter and fairer skin is something that everyone craves for, and celebrities play a massive part in paving the way. Just like ladies, men also aspire to get immaculate, glowing and healthy-looking skin to accentuate their personality and overall looks. It’s for everyone to understand that men really feel shy to discuss the skincare routines as they feel it’s all-girl stuff. But there is no denying that even boys need to uplift and improve their skin texture to feel good. Studies have documented the use of skin fairness products, sometimes referred to as “skin whitening products,” “skin bleaching products,” “depigmenting agents,” in Africa, Europe, North America, and Asia, with prevalence of use ranging from 30 to 80% among various community samples. Skin fairness products include whitening and skin-lightening creams, face washes, deodorants, and lotions. These agents act in different ways to lighten skin, but generally work by suppressing the production…

  • Skin Care Creams: Formulation and Use

    Skin reflects origin, lifestyle, age and state of health. Skin color, tone and evenness, pigmentation, as well as skin surface characteristics are signs of skin’s health. The cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry offers a vast armamentarium of skin care products and procedures to clean, soothe, restore, reinforce, protect and to treat our skin and hence to keep it in “good condition”. Skin care products are readily available in daily life and they play a major role in health and nursing care. The promotion of skin care products including their claims are often based on an effect (e.g., moisturizing, antioxidant), evoked by an active (e.g., urea, tocopherol) that is delivered through a vehicle (e.g., lotion) that relies on a specific technology (e.g., nanotechnology). In addition, “without” claims (e.g., without parabens) often accompany nowadays promotions. Today, modern skin care includes cleansing, soothing, restoring, reinforcing and protecting. With increasing age, the emphasis on skin care is changing. The importance of soothing, restoring, reinforcing increases and cleansing should be executed with particular care. The character of skin care shifts from more cosmetic objectives e smooth, healthy looking skin e to more therapeutic and preventive objectives e soothing, restoring, reinforcing and protecting stressed skin. Even though skin care and skin protection play an important role throughout lifetime the skin areas in primary need of care and protection also change. In younger years, environmental factors (e.g., UV radiation) are of primary importance whereas in advanced years, age-related factors (e.g., prolonged exposure to various sources of moisture, including urine or feces, perspiration, wound exudate, and their contents) become more important. Subsequently the skin areas in need of care and protection also change e initially skin areas (e.g., face, arms, legs) exposed to the external environment and later enclosed skin areas (e.g., skin folds, perianal, perigenital skin, groin, feet)…

  • An Extensive Review of Cosmetics in Use

    The word “cosmetics” actually stems from its use in Ancient Rome. They were typically produced by female slaves known as “cosmetae,” which is where the word “cosmetics” stemmed from. Cosmetics are used to enhance appearance. Makeup has been around for many centuries. The first known people who used cosmetics to enhance their beauty were the Egyptians. Makeup those days was just simple eye coloring or some material for the body. Now-a-days makeup plays an important role for both men and women. In evolutionary psychology, social competition of appearance strengthens women’s desires for ideal beauty. According to “The Origin of Species”, humans have evolved to transfer genes to future generations through sexual selection that regards the body condition of ideal beauty as excellent fertility. Additionally, since women’s beauty has recently been considered a competitive advantage to create social power, a body that meets the social standards of a culture could achieve limited social resources. That’s right, even men have become more beauty conscious and are concerned about their looks. Cosmetics can be produced in the organic and hypoallergenic form to meet the demands of users. Makeup is used as a beauty aid to help build up the self-esteem and confidence of an individual. The importance of cosmetics has increased as many people want to stay young and attractive. Cosmetics are readily available today in the form of creams, lipstick, perfumes, eye shadows, nail polishes, hair sprays etc. Other cosmetics like face powder give glow to the skin after applying the base cream. Then we have lipsticks, which are applied by many women of all ages. They are made from wax and cocoa butter in the desired amount. Cosmetics like creams, gels, and colognes are used on a daily basis by both women and men. Creams act as a cleanser for the…

  • Acne Vulgaris: Measures and Miseries

    Acne, also known as acne vulgaris (AV), is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. An intact stratum corneum and barrier, normal natural moisturizing factor and hyaluronic acid levels, normal Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression (localized at the basal lateral membranes of collecting duct cells in the kidney), and balanced sebum secretion are qualities of the skin that fall in the middle of the oily–dry spectrum. Patients rarely, if ever, complain about reduced sebum production, but elevated sebum production, yielding oily skin that can be a precursor to acne, is a common complaint. Several factors are known to influence sebum production. AV is mostly triggered by Propionibacterium acnes in adolescence, under the influence of normal circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). It is a very common skin disorder which can present with inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions chiefly on the face but can also occur on the upper arms, trunk, and back. Age, in particular, has a significant and well-known impact, as sebum levels are usually low in childhood, rise in the middle-to-late teen years, and remain stable into the seventh and eighth decades until endogenous androgen synthesis dwindles. Sebum, the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands containing wax esters, sterol esters, cholesterol, di- and triglycerides, and squalene, imparts an oily quality to the skin and is well known to play an important role in acne development. Acne can’t be prevented or cured, but it can be treated effectively. The pimples and bumps heal slowly, and when one begins to go away, others seem to crop up. Depending on its severity, acne can cause emotional distress and scar the skin. Acne may cause scarring of the skin, but generally causes…

  • Serious Staphylococcus Aureus Infection in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus

    The immune system and metabolism are closely related and it is recognized that diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications have a compromising impact on the degree of immunosuppression. The authors present the case of a 65-year-old man with a history of type 2 DM and ulcers of the lower limbs who went to the emergency departament with odynophagia, dysphagia, fever and cervicalgia. He had a painful cervical and supraclavicular region and highly infectious parameters in blood samples. The cervical radiography suggested vertebral fusion and cervical computed tomography with soft tissue thickening, hypopharyngeal deviation and gaseous foci suggestive of abscess. He started empiric antibiotic therapy and was performed an abscess drainage where Staphylococcus aureus oxacillin susceptible was isolated. S. aureus bacteremias have a higher prevalence in diabetics, being essential the rapid orientation in situations of bacteremia to clarify the infectious focus and immediate onset of antibiotic therapy which decreases mortality.

  • On the happiness of e-commerce majors in employment

    The practical significance of this paper is to enrich and deepen the research on the employment happiness of e-commerce majors by understanding their employment happiness.It provides valuable reference for the education and training of college students, analyzes the psychological changes of e-commerce majors in the process of job-hunting, and helps e-commerce majors build up confidence and solve employment difficulties.

  • Construction and Niche-fitness Evaluation of the Science and Technology Financial Ecosphere

    Firstly, based on the analysis of ecological theory, the paper defines the sci-tech financial ecosphere, which is the key way to achieve high quality economic development, can promote the integration and development of capital chain, innovation chain and industrial chain. And the model of sci-tech financial ecosphere that reveals its internal structure and operation pattern, is built on the basis of analyzing its elements. Then, the niche-fitness index system of sci-tech financial ecosphere is established from the ecological niche of the sci-tech finance ecological subject and the ecological environment. Niche-fitness evaluation model is used to evaluate the niche-fitness level of sci-tech financial ecosphere so as to measure the satisfaction degree of the actual resource conditions of sci-tech financial ecosphere to the high quality of economic development. Finally, the paper selects Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen as empirical research objects to evaluate the niche-fitness of sci-tech financial ecosphere during the period of 2010-2017, and puts forward some suggestions.

  • Oral pyridostigmine for treatment of postoperative ileus associated with elevated catecholamine levels: A case report

    The etiology of post-operative ileus is usually multifactorial, but increased catecholamines have been implicated as an important cause. We present a case of catecholamine-induced prolonged post-operative ileus treated successfully with Pyridostigmine. A 70-year-old male underwent a low-anterior resection and diverting loop ileostomy for rectal cancer. Immediately post-operatively he developed refractory hypertensive urgency and a small bowel ileus. Biochemical testing revealed markedly elevated 24-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines. However, radiologic studies failed to identify a pheochromocytoma. The ileus persisted despite employing a multimodal regimen consisting of avoidance of narcotic pain medications, gastric decompression via a nasogastric tube, maintenance of normal levels of electrolytes, parenteral nutritional support, and early mobilization. Two weeks after the surgery the patient was treated with oral Pyridostigmine with appropriate return of bowel function. Excessive circulating catecholamines play an important role in the etiology of refractory post-operative ileus, and cholinesterase inhibitors such as Pyridostigmine could be used as an effective treatment in such cases.

  • Pulmonary metastasis of a Dermatofibrosarcoma of Darier and Ferrand treated by IMATINIB: a case report

    Dermatofibrosarcoma (DFS) described by Darier and Ferrand represents less than 5% of soft tissue sarcomas and metastases only very rarely. We report the case of a 51-year-old patient followed for six years for a DFS of the right thigh root recurrent several times after non-optimal surgical resections. The occurrence of thoracic pain associated with a cough with dyspnea, motivated the realization of a thoracic computed tomography (CT) showing a right basal pulmonary mass with pulmonary nodules. CT biopsy of one of the pulmonary nodules confirmed the metastatic nature of these lesions. The search for translocation t (17,22) could not be performed. A treatment based on imatinib has been started. The evolution was marked by the disappearance of the respiratory symptomatology and a good radiological response. The advent of targeted therapy with imatinib transformed the prognosis for this disease, which was considered incurable at the metastatic stage.