Phytochemical Antimicrobial Screening of Costus Afer Extract and Its Alleviation of Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity
Plants of medicinal values contain bioactive compounds capable of preventing and combating several oxidative related diseases. Many diseases have been wrongly attended to using several medicinal plants of choice by mere instinct or sunrise. The phytochemical screening, (antimicrobial activity of Costus afer extract and its alleviation of carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity were evaluated. The phytochemical screening of both qualitative and quantitative analyses showed the presence of Tannins, Steroids, Phenols, Phytate, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Saponin, Alkaloids and Flavonoids in the aqueous, methanol and n-hexane stem extract. The antimicrobial activity of Costus afer extract using two different solvents showed its bactericical effect and no antibiotic effect on fungi microorganisms at different concentration. The study based on the toxicity of the substance, carbon tetrachloride showed the serum elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 18.104.22.168.), aspirate aminotransferase (AST, EC 22.214.171.124) and alkaline phosphase (ALT, EC 126.96.36.199) in the liver of the rabbits in response to the oral administration of the chemical. The rabbits fed with the Costus afer extract of methanol and N-hexane showed a moderate effect while the rabbits fed with the chemical carbon tetrachloride had a very high elevation on the enzymes. The rabbits, however fed with both the Costus afer and the chemical compound, carbon tetrachloride showed a considerable alleviation on the level of toxicity of the chemical. The rabbits fed with the Costus afer extract and the chemical carbon tetrachloride mixture statistically showed significant (p
Since the electric power cannot be stored for long time, the spot prices of electricity are extremely volatile. In order to control risks, it is necessary to introduce financial derivatives into electricity markets. This paper mainly studies the pricing of electricity swing options, which are widely applied in financial markets for electricity. Through finite difference and discretization of transaction time and price, the issue of swing option pricing is transformed to a linear complementary problem. At the same time, the optimization model is established by combining optimal behaviors of swing option buyers. Finally, through the actual data of electricity futures, above model and algorithm are used to simulate the pricing of swing options.
Assessing Plausible Options For Sourcing Spare Parts Of Earthmoving Equipment On The Profitability Of Nigeria’s Iron Ore Company
As Nigeria takes a bold step to revive her iron ore company, it is pertinent she takes adequate account of her economic and technological limitations, in order to achieve a return on this venture. To this end, the Net Discounted Present Value approach to investment appraisal in mine economics, was employed to evaluate two feasible investment options (spare part importation and conventional sand casting) for sourcing parts of earthmoving equipment on the profitability of Nigeria’s iron ore mining company (NIOMCO),over a period of five years. Findings revealed that, both options are not profitable to the federal entity, owing to the high rate of Nigeria’s inflation (15.98%) and unfavorable market exchange rate of $1 to 359.201. However, it recommends that the entity be privatized to financially buoyant investors, able to withstand the cost of operating the company. Also, a new price has to be set, using the absorption pricing technique, in order to absorb running costs, through the projected period of five years. In addition, no additional unit of labour, be employed, due to its evident burden on running expenses, over the projected period of five years. Unfortunately, selling iron ore concentrate at the prevailing market price ($62.59) was found not to be profitable to the entity. To this effect, the design of modalities aimed at penetrating and coping in the domestic market is a necessity, to enhance the entity’s sustainability, in the short-run. This is subject to further research.
Perspective of Teachers on the Influence of Textbook Ratio on Quality Academic Achievement among Girls in Secondary Education in Kisumu County
A number of studies both quantitative and qualitative have attempted to find out causes of challenges of low achievement in mathematics among girls. There was therefore need to conduct a study to establish the influence of textbook ratio as an independent variable on academic achievement in mathematics among girls at form four level in secondary schools in Kisumu County. Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examination results of girls who sat for the examinations between 2010 and 2014 constituted the dependent variable. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of textbook ratio on girls’ academic achievement in mathematics at secondary level. Correlation research design was applied to examine the degree of influence between the independent and dependent variable using statistical data. The study was conducted in Kisumu County Kenya. The target population of the study consisted of 142 public secondary schools which presented female candidates for KCSE between 2010 and 2014, 142 Principals, 142 Heads of mathematics department and 390 mathematics teachers who taught the girls under study. Stratified random sampling was applied whereby schools were categorized as girls’ secondary schools and mixed secondary schools. Purposive sampling was done to select all the 18 girls’ secondary schools in Kisumu County while random Sampling was used to select 38 out of 124 mixed secondary schools in Kisumu County. The sample constituted 39% of the study population. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis guide. Instruments of data collection were validated by the researcher’s supervisors and reliability of the instrument was established through test retest method by carrying out a pilot study in 5 schools which were not part of the study sample. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages, means, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis. Qualitative data from interview…
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive myeloproliferative neoplasm. The molecular consequence of reciprocal translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11) is the generation of the BCR–ABL fusion gene, which encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase signaling protein. The tyrosine kinase is responsible for the leukemia phenotype through the constitutive activation of multiple signaling pathways involved in the cell cycle and in adhesion and apoptosis. Dasatinib is an oral BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) which is mainly used for treating CML patients with resistance or intolerance to Imatinib. Dasatinib has several significant adverse reactions and gastrointestinal side effects including colitis. We report a case of a 33-year-old male, diagnosed with CML (Chronic Phase) who received Dasatinib as second-line therapy and developed chronic diarrhea and colitis attributed to Dasatinib and improved after stopping it.
Introduction: There is a strong risk perception of personal knowledge on both cigarette-and alcohol-related harm. One possible factor contributing to this may be greater availability and access of cigarette and alcohol in the communities especially in developing settings. The causes of the difference in psychological factors that affect the public with high risk perception of cigarette and alcohol consumption was analysed. A higher perception of cigarette and alcohol availability is not only likely to increase supply but also to raise awareness of the different brands of alcohol, create a competitive local market that reduces product costs, and influence local social norms relating to cigarette and alcohol consumption. This paper assess risk perception with respect to the association between psychological paradigms of alcohol and cigarette use in both Korea and Cameroon nationwide. Methods: Using questionnaire survey a cross sectional study on risk perception regarding cigarette and alcohol consumption was assessed among some 2,181 men and 2,203 women from Korea and Cameroon who were over the age of 20 nationwide. Descriptive statistics were performed in order to analyse the sociodemographic characteristics of South Korea and Cameroon. Student’s t-test was performed to test the difference between risk perception and the psychometric paradigm. Correlational analysis was performed to analyse the relationship between risk perception and psychometric paradigm for each country. In order to analyse the components that affect risk perception, multivariate regression analysis was conducted. Results: The analysis results indicated that for Koreans, the risk perception from smoking was the highest 5.49 ± 1.37 which was beyond controllability and the perceived risk from alcohol consumption was the highest for Cameroonians 6.21 ± 1.22). The results indicated that both South Koreans and Cameroonians indicated a strong risk perception based on cigarette and alcohol consumption with regards to their personal knowledge, scientifically proven evidence, dread consequences…
Determination of Microbiological quality and detection of Thermotolerant fecal E. coli in ready to use water from Navsari city of South Gujarat
Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. The present study was designed to determine the density of Coliform and Thermotolerant fecal E. coli from ready to use water samples collected for a five month(from november-2016 to March-2017) period of monitoring from in and around Navsari city. A total of 73 samples were collected from different places and processed under standard bacteriological techniques. The EMB Agar was used as selective medium for isolation. The presumptive isolates of thermotolerant fecal E. coli were identified by Indole and Mac Conkey broth test (Acid & Gas) at 44°C incubation and coliform were enumerated by MPN technique and E. coli were identified by metallic seen on EMB agar plate and biochemical test. Analysis of result revealed 11 isolates (15.06 %) (3 samples from Abrama village, 3 samples from fish market, 1 sample from PG hostel, 1 samples from Krishna hotel, 1 sample from Jay Ambe tea stall, 1 sample from Mahadev mandir and 1 sample from panipuri centre) of Thermotolerant fecal E. coli as well as E. coli from 73 samples. All 11 isolates having presumptive number of coliform (MPN/100ml) ranging from 13-242 which may higher than the standard number which is below 10 according to BIS. The sensitivity pattern of Thermotolerant fecal E. coli with different antimicrobial agents was evaluated by D-test and showed cent percent resistant towards Amoxycilline followed in reducing levels by 18.18% each, of Cephalothine, Trimethoprime and Gatifloxacin and 9.09% each, of Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol. The pattern clearly indicated overall intermediate resistance to Cephalothine (36.36%), Gatifloxacin (36.36%). The isolates showed sensitivity towards 90.90% each, of Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol followed in reducing levels by Trimethoprime (81.81%) and 45.45% each, of Cephalothine and Gatifloxacin. The multiple antibiotic resistance MAR index was determined for each isolate which may…
The emission of methane from dumpsite have become a global mantra due to its remarkable effect on global climate change. This study assessed the levels of methane emissions from 6 dumpsites using portable air quality meter (AEROQUAL-Series 300). Results showed that the spatial level of methane ranged from 1.00 – 6.44 ppm. Based on temporal variation level of methane ranged from 1.59 – 4.09 ppm (p
Malaria infection among persons patronizing drugstores for malaria treatment in Port Harcourt and its environs Rivers, State Nigeria
Background: Malaria continues to be of grave concern, despite all efforts geared towards its control and so remains a public health dilemma in Nigeria. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of malaria among persons patronizing drugstores for malaria treatment in Port Harcourt and its environs, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained and samples were randomly collected from 24 drug stores in three different locations and analyzed using both microscopy and rapid diagnostic techniques. Results: Out of 663 participants, 151(22.78%) were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. None was positive for P. Vivax. Preponderance by location showed that out of 221 sampled in each location, Mile IV (Rumueme) 68(30.77%), Rumuosi had 51(23.08%) and D/Line area 32(14.48%). The occurrence of malaria in the study area was significantly different (X2 = 16.69; p = 0.001). Out of the 151 positive cases, 134 (88.0%) had an intensity level of 1,000 parasites/µl, 16 (10.6%) had an intensity level of 1000-9999 parasites/µl and only 1(0.71%) had an intensity level of ≥10,000parasites/µl (0.71%). (X2 = 2.58; P = 0.275). This implies that majority of those patronizing drugstores for malaria treatments do not have severe malaria. In conclusions: The occurrence of malaria among the study group is high. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of malaria across the three study areas. Therefore, the populace should be encouraged to step up their practice on malaria prevention and control.
It is a case report of 48-year-old male patient of chronic non-healing Venous ulcer. Five ulcers were found on inspection on medial aspect of left foot. Symptoms started as slight discoloration, before 30 years. As days progressed even a small scratch leads to ulcer formation. He managed the condition by taking allopathic medicine and got a satisfactory result. But the discoloration persisted, and the ulcers reoccurred with severe burning sensation and itching. Again, he took homeopathic medication and got symptomatic relief. Due to the recurrence of ulcers, Ayurvedic treatment was started on In-Patient basis followed by both external and internal medications. Externally, patient was treated by Patradaana(a type of wound healing treatment using leaves) with Jathyadi kera tailam (oil Preparation) and internally by Syp. Cardorium plus (Herbal formulation), Sahacharadi Kashaya (Medicated Decoction) and Triphala guggulu (Tablet). Sterile Lotus leaves smeared with Jathyadi kera taila were used for covering the ulcer site and the bandage was retained for 12hrs. Later the ulcer sites were covered with a gauze to avoid exposing to the uncleanness, until the next bandage. The procedure is continued for 8days. Sahacharadi Kashaya (Medicated Decoction) and Triphala guggulu (Tablet) were advice for a period of 3weeks and Syrup. Cardorium plus (Herbal formulation) was continued for 2months. This was an attempt to bring the concepts mentioned in Ayurveda classics for Vrana treatment and got a satisfactory result after following this treatment protocol.