Ambulatory care pharmacy practice is defined as the provision of integrated, accessible healthcare services by pharmacists who are accountable for addressing medication needs, developing sustained partnerships with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. This is accomplished through direct patient care and medication management for ambulatory patients, long-term relationships, coordination of care, patient advocacy, wellness and health promotion, triage and referral, and patient education and self-management. The ambulatory care pharmacists may work in both an institutional and community-based clinic involved in direct care of a diverse patient population. A variety of specialty clinics are available for allergy and immunology, pulmonology, endocrinology, cardiology, nephrology, neurology, behavioral health, and infectious disease. Such services for this population may exist as a primary care clinic or an independent specialty clinic, typically in a PCMH, which is instrumental in coordinating care between various providers. Once a practice site is identified, it is important to establish a strong, trusting, and mutually beneficial relationship with the various decision-makers (e.g., administrators, providers) involved with the clinic. If pharmacy services are currently in existence, the pharmacy director may be able to identify and initially contact the appropriate person. If another pharmacist is providing clinical services, this person would be a resource to help determine areas for expansion of patient care and to whom to direct the proposed business plan. Additional individuals to consider as an initial point of contact include the clinic manager, clinic medical director, or administrative assistant to either of these persons. If the clinic setting is affiliated with a medical school, it may be necessary to contact the Department of Family Medicine head.
Seafood provides essential nutrients to the body. A study funded by CDC found that eating seafood for essential Omega-3 fatty acids can prevent 84,000 deaths each year [1-3]. According to a Harvard study, 3-ounce servings of fatty fish a week reduces the risk of dying from heart disease by nearly 40% . Eating 8 two servings of fish per week during pregnancy can improve baby’s IQ, cognitive development, and eye health [5,6]. Older adults with the highest fish consumption live and average of 2.2 years longer . But all these statements possess another side of the coin. Food-born poisoning, mercury-lead-arsenic-cadmium poisoning, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) raised the issue of safety with aberrant consumption of seafoods. Seafood choices that are very low in mercury include: salmon, sardines, pollock, flounders, cod, tilapia, shrimp, oysters, clams, scallops and crab. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed directions to help consumers minimize risks that could be associated with several pollutants (specially mercury) in seafood.
Coral reefs also provide major essential benefits to people, like food production, tourism, biotechnology development, and coastal protection. While covering less than 1% of the ocean surface, coral reefs provide habitat for nearly one third of marine fish species as well as 10% of all fish captured for human consumption. In some situations, primarily related to the number of swimmers and the geography of the shoreline, concentrations of oxybenzone far exceed the levels shown to be harmful to corals . Coral reefs consist of organisms in delicate equilibria that are susceptible to small changes in their surroundings. Recent natural and man-made disruptions, direct or indirect, such as changes in ocean temperature and chemistry, ingress of invasive species, pathogens, pollution and deleterious fishing practices, have been blamed for the poor health, or even the outright destruction, of some coral reefs . Florida has the world’s third largest barrier reef, with nearly 1,400 species of plants and animals and 500 species of fish, but the reef is vanishing fast. Research has found that roughly half of the reef has disappeared over the past 250 years. Coverage of acropora, the primary genus of reef-building corals, has plummeted 97% . In 2015, the nonprofit Haereticus Environmental Laboratory surveyed Trunk Bay beach on St. John, where visitors ranged from 2,000 to 5,000 swimmers daily, and estimated over 6,000 pounds of sunscreen was deposited on the reef annually. The same year, it found an average of 412 pounds of sunscreen was deposited daily on the reef at Hanauma Bay, a popular snorkeling destination in Oahu (Hawaii) that draws an average of 2,600 swimmers each day. Over the past three years, one – fifth of the world’s coral reefs have died off — and there is a growing awareness that sunscreen is playing a role [4,5]. 82,000…
Patient Medical History & Medical Record Keeping: Accurate Problem Identification for Effective Solution
Obtaining an accurate medication history, keeping and proper maintenance of patient medical records, tracking medication lists are essential parts of medicine reconciliation and these are the processes where pharmacists play a vital role in. Without all these, prescribers may inadvertently make incorrect decisions about a patient’s treatment, causing harm if previously discontinued medicines are restarted, or if current medicines are omitted or prescribed at the wrong dose for the patient. Medical records are a fundamental part of a physician’s duties in providing patient care. Medical records can contain a wide range of material, such as handwritten notes, computerized records, correspondence between health professionals, lab reports, imaging records, photographs, video and other recordings and printouts from monitoring equipment. Poor record keeping is a major factor in litigation cases brought against healthcare professionals.
Medication-related problems are common among home care patients who take many medications and have complex medical histories and health problems. The goals of home health care services are to help individuals to improve function and live with greater independence; to promote the client’s optimal level of well-being; and to assist the patient to remain at home, avoiding hospitalization or admission to long-term care institutions. Home care is an arrangement of care given by gifted experts to patients in their homes under the heading of a doctor. Home medicinal services administrations incorporate nursing care; physical, word related, and discourse dialect treatment; and therapeutic social administrations. Doctors may allude patients for home social insurance administrations, or the administrations might be asked for by relatives or patients. The scope of home social insurance benefits a patient can get at home is boundless. Contingent upon the individual patient’s circumstance, care can extend from nursing care to specific therapeutic administrations, for example, research facility workups. Normal analyses among home social insurance patients incorporate circulatory infection, coronary illness, damage and harming, musculoskeletal and connective tissue sickness and respiratory malady.
Economic development is thus a multivariate concept; hence there is no single satisfactory definition of it. Development is conventionally measured as economic growth with level of development in the process of size of economy. A country’s economic health can usually be measured by looking at that country’s economic growth and development. Most of the economists clamored for dethronement of GNP and define development in terms of removal of poverty, illiteracy, disease and changes in the composition of input and output, increase in per capita output of material goods.
As indicated by World Bank publication Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (third edition, 2017), about 20% all out health use universally originated from out-of-pocket payments in 2014. The equivalent was about 40% all out health use for low-income countries, 56% for lower-middle-income countries, and 30% for upper-middle-income countries (WHO, 2016). 33% of the world’s populace needs opportune access to quality-guaranteed medicines while assessments demonstrate that in any event 10% of medicine in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) are substandard or distorted, costing roughly US$ 31 billion every year (Global Health, 2018). Shockingly, 80% of worldwide cardiovascular passings happen in LMICs which is (halfway) because of the absence of access to healthcare including talented HR, equipped offices and medicines (Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, WHO, 2010). Cost of drugs, antibodies, and diagnostics is a noteworthy weight in LMICs round the globe. Cost of biotech drugs are much higher because of surprising expense caused by the pharmaceutical organizations for clinical preliminary. Biotech drugs have totally changed the administration of a few diseases, including malignant growth and immune system diseases. Albeit essential yet their affordability is as yet a consuming issue, particularly in LMICs.
The most frequent causes of death in the United States and globally are chronic diseases, including heart disease, cancer, lung diseases, and diabetes. Behavioral factors, particularly tobacco use, diet and activity patterns, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, and avoidable injuries are among the most prominent contributors to mortality. Projections of the global burden of disease for the next two decades include increases in noncommunicable diseases, high rates of tobacco-related deaths, and a dramatic rise in deaths from HIV/AIDS. Worldwide, the major causes of death by 2030 are expected to be HIV/AIDS, depressive disorders, and heart disease. At the same time, in many parts of the world, infectious diseases continue to pose grim threats, especially for the very young, the old, and those with compromised immune systems. Malaria, diarrheal diseases, and other infectious diseases, in addition to AIDS, are major health threats to the poorest people around the world. And, like chronic diseases, their trajectory may be influenced by the application of effective health behavior interventions. Substantial suffering, premature mortality, and medical costs can be avoided by positive changes in behavior at multiple levels. Most recently, there has been a renewed focus on public health infrastructure to plan for emergencies, including both human-made and natural disasters. During the past twenty years, there has been a dramatic increase in public, private, and professional interest in preventing disability and death through changes in lifestyle and participation in screening programs. Much of this interest in disease prevention and early detection has been stimulated by the epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases as leading causes of death, the aging of the population, rapidly escalating health care costs, and data linking individual behaviors to increased risk of morbidity and mortality.
There are around 60 global species belonging to the genus Sesbania which are commonly found to be grown in Africa, Australia, and Asia. The leaves of Sesbania grandiflora have been used in local traditional medicine since ancient times. Major chemical constituents are alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, anthraquinone, steroid, pholobatannins, and terpenoids. Isovestitol, medicarpin, sativan (isoflavonoids) and betulinic acid (tannin substance) are the major constituents responsible for antibacterial and antifungal, antioxidant, anti-urolithiatic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic, and hepatoprotective properties. Also, the plant extract contains alkaloids, phenolics, tannins, triterpenoids, and sterols. All parts of S. grandiflora are used in traditional medicine and phytochemical investigations have been conducted on extracts of the leaves, seeds and roots of S. grandiflora to provide scientific validation of its properties.
Perception of Community Members on the provision of Low Cost Housing in Kwa-Dlangezwa Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
The South African government of democracy have shown to prioritise the provision of low cost housing to poor communities. This paper critically investigates the perception of community members on the provision of low cost housing. The paper followed qualitative approach with an ethnographic research design and semi-structured interviews, as a result, the open ended questions were used as a tool for data collection. The snowball sampling was adopted as a procedure to sample the intended participants. The sample size of this paper was 36 participants and content analysis was used to analyse and categorise the data. The provision of low cost housing in South Africa was introduced with an intention to deal with racial inequalities created during apartheid period, while also addressing issues related to poor services delivery in local municipalities. Some of the indispensable facets of the findings expose that the local government is struggling to address the existence of bottlenecks in ensuring housing provision and the apparently cumulative demand of housing. The findings of the study found that the low cost housing beneficiaries were not involved during the processes of decision making and implementation phase of the projects. While political affiliation noted as an underlying factor that creates unfairness provision of low cost housing. Therefore, municipal officials through ward councillors and community leaders should play an essential role to facilitate smooth provision of low cost housing, while ensuring that the intervention reaches intended beneficiaries without unnecessary backlogs.