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  • Synthesis of Waste Frying Oil and Trimethylolpropane Based Lubricant Basestocks

    Research on waste frying oil based lubricant base stocks production and trimethylolpropane (TMP) was investigated. Quality parameters were tested for the waste frying oil. The hydrolysis process was conducted to extract the free fatty acid from waste frying oil. TMP ester was produced via reaction between free fatty acids of waste frying oil and TMP at 130-140°C, for 5 hours with acid-catalyzed condition. Modification of TMP ester by epoxidation reaction followed by ring-opening reaction using a medium branch chain alcohol; 2-ethylhexanol. The TMP ester was reacted with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid at 45-55°C for 2½ hours during epoxidation process. Epoxidized TMP ester was reacted with 2-ethylhexanol in mol ratio of 1:2 to produce ether ester TMP. Concentrated sulphuric acid was used as a catalyst during ring opening and esterification processes. Ether ester TMP functional groups and chemical structure were identified using FTIR and NMR, respectively. Confirmation with FTIR has indicated sharp peak at 1742 cm-¹, proved the existence of ester group which confirmed the TMP ester formation during esterification and broad peak of 3456 cm-1 during ring opening indicated the formation of ether ester TMP. In ¹H NMR analysis, the signal of methylene proton in which the carbon attached to ether esters TMP existed at 4.0-4.1 ppm and for 13C NMR, the carbonyl ester signals existed in the range of 174.1 ppm. Several analyses were conducted on the ether ester TMP base stock such as hydroxyl value, viscosity value, pour point and flash point. It showed good low temperature behaviour with pour point at -40ºC and high thermal stability, flash point value exceeding 250ºC and viscosity value of 75 cP. The ether ester TMP produced is comparable with a commercial biolubricant in the market respectively.

  • Alternative Management of Uncomplicated UTIs in Women

    UTIs typically cause women to have a severe urge to urinate, and to do so frequently. It’s also often very painful when they do, and many experiences a burning sensation in their bladder or urethra. Two common factors emerged in urine that had a better ability to resist bacterial growth: it had a high pH—one that’s more alkaline, in other words—and higher levels of certain metabolites formed by gut microbes. Physicians already know how to raise urinary pH with things like calcium supplements, and alkalizing agents are already used in the U.K. as over-the-counter UTI treatments. However, early on in an infection, cells produce a protein called siderocalin that blocks bacterial growth, including the growth of E. coli. Uncomplicated UTIs usually go away with drugs within two to three weeks, but in some cases, women may take antibiotics for 6 months or longer if their UTIs keep coming back. Most UTIs are caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), and recent surveillance data shows a significant rise in cases of UTIs caused by E. coli that are resistant to the antibiotics most commonly used to that treat them. Doctors say “It’s uncomfortable but not life-threatening, so women don’t go in”.

  • Pharmacists in Aged Care Facilities

    The expression “Home-based care” or basically home care might be characterized as a wide exhibit of various kinds of care gave in the home by a wide scope of gatherings. The continuum of various sorts of home-based care conveyed in the home shifts as far as various measurements, including sharpness, kind of care gave, and level of physician contribution. Home-based care incorporates both formal and casual individual care services, Medicare gifted home health, physician house calls, and even “emergency clinic at-home” services. Prescription related issues are essential among home care patients who take various drugs and have complex medical annals and medical issues. The destinations of home social protection organizations are to help individuals with improving limit and live with progressively noticeable opportunity; to propel the client’s optimal element of thriving; and to assist the patient with staying at home, keeping up a vital good way from hospitalization or admission to long haul care establishments. Home care is a game plan of care given by capable specialists to patients in their homes under the heading of a doctor. Home restorative services organizations join nursing care; physical, word related, and talk language treatment; and medical social organizations. Doctors may suggest patients for home therapeutic services organizations, or the organizations may be requested by relatives or patients. The extent of home human services benefits a patient can get at home is endless. Contingent upon the individual patient’s condition, care can reach out from nursing care to explicit medical organizations, for instance, research center workups. Essential investigations among home therapeutic services patients consolidate circulatory disease, coronary ailment, harm and hurting, musculoskeletal and connective tissue disease and respiratory disease.

  • Safety of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in patients ventilated with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and high FiO2

    Case report of bronchoscopically guided percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in-patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome ventilated with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and high FiO2.

  • Color Stability of Different Resin Cement Systems: A Spectrophotometric Analysis

    Aim: To evaluate the color stability of dual cure and light cure resin cements immersed in coffee solution at different time periods (baseline, 3 days and 1 week). Materials and methods: The color stability of three light curing (Variolink Esthetic (VLC); Rely X Veneer (RLC) and Mojo Veneer (MLC)) and three dual curing (Variolink Esthetic (VDC); Rely X Ultimate (RDC) and Breeze (MDC)) resin cements were tested. A total of sixty disks (10 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thickness) were prepared using a silicone mold (n=10). The specimens were subjected to baseline color measurement using Commission Internationale de l’Eclairege L*a*b* (CIELAB) color space system with the help of a spectrophotometer (LabScan XE, HunterLab, VA, USA). Following baseline color measurements, the specimens were immersed in a staining coffee solution. The color measurement was repeated after 3 days and 1 week of immersion in coffee solution. All the data collected were statistically analyzed using repeated measures of Analysis of variance (ANOVA, P

  • Primary Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease in Indonesia

    Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. An increase number in the proportion of elders is accompanied by an increase of degenerative diseases and disabilities, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prevalence of dementia in Indonesia is 1.2 million cases in 2015 and will keep increasing up to 3,980,000 in 2050. This study discusses data on the prevalence of dementia’s risk factors in Indonesia, calculates population-attributable risks (PAR) to identify the number of dementia cases that could be prevented, and determines which intervention strategies will have the most significant effect in reducing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) cases. Prevalence of potentially modifiable risk factors for AD such as low education, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and mental disorders are still high. Moreover, the prevalences keep increasing for the last five years. Low education has the highest estimated PAR, which could significantly lower new AD cases if it is being improved. Ten and thirty percent of risk factor reduction can decrease AD cases by 18,000 and 66,000 cases. In addition, reducing physical inactivity by 10% and 30% can reduce 19,000 and 55,000 cases of AD respectively; lowering 10% prevalence of midlife hypertension and diabetes can reduce 2400 and 1600 cases of AD. Decreasing 10% of all risk factors is estimated to reduce 22,000 of new AD cases. By reducing these modifiable risk factors, especially by improving access to education, the incidence of AD could be greatly reduced. This review is expected to give suggestion to the government in determining the priority scale of controlling risk factors for reducing the social and economic burden caused by AD.

  • An Algorithmic Random-Integer Generator based on the Distribution of Prime Numbers

    The prevalencWe talk about random when it is not possible to determine a pattern on the observed out-comes. A computer follows a sequence of fixed instructions to give any of its output, hence the difficulty of choosing numbers randomly from algorithmic approaches. However, some algorithms like the Linear Congruential algorithm and the Lagged Fibonacci generator appear to produce “true” random sequences to anyone who does not know the secret initial input [1]. Up to now, we cannot rigorously answer the question on the randomness of prime numbers [2, page 1] and this highlights a connection between random number generator and the distribution of primes. From [3] and [4] one sees that it is quite naive to expect good random reproduction with prime numbers. We are, however, interested in the properties underlying the distribution of prime numbers, which emerge as sufficient or insufficient arguments to conclude a proof by contradiction which tends to show that prime numbers are not randomly distributed. To achieve this end, we use prime gap sequence variation. Our algorithm makes possible to deduce, in a binary choice case, a uniform behavior in the individual consecutive occurrence of primes, and no uniformity trait when the occurrences are taken collectively.

  • Turning complexity into clarity: polyuria and hypernatremia

    Case history The patient is 65-year old African American male with history of hypertension. He was admitted to hospital with lethargy, disorientation, and confusion. His clinical evaluation and CT of the head revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. He had h/o stroke 5 years ago. The patient didn’t have fever, but did have a diarrhea of 1-day duration. He is receiving parenteral feeding and his urine output is 4L/day. His physical examination revealed blood pressure of 100/70mmHg, with heart rate of 100 BPM. He has dry mucous membranes and the rest of examination was unremarkable. His laboratory investigation showed sodium 159meg/L, K+ 4.6meg/L, chloride 114mEq/L, HCO3 26mEq/L, creatinine 1.9mg/L, Blood urea nitrogen 64mg/L, and glucose 200mg/L His urine sodium 70mEq/L, and urine osmolality 380mOsm/Kg H2O. His volume status is slightly dry, and he weighs 70Kg. Case discussion This case illustrated several information including polyuria with parenteral nutrition, low blood pressure and dry mucous membranes denoting low extracellular fluids volume. High serum sodium, and high urine osmolality in the face of hypovolemia and hypernatremia. As a consequence of his illness he suffered from low perfusion to the kidneys with worsening kidney function. Hypernatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality and defined as a serum sodium >145mEq/L (1,2,3). Hypernatremia is hyperosmolar state caused by a decrease in total body water (TBW), relative to electrolytes content (4). Therefore, hypernatremia is a water problem not sodium problem. It often occurs in elderly and hospitalized patients with restricted access to water and in those with impaired thirst mechanism (hypodipsia/adepsia) or mental status changes. Developing hypernatremia is virtually impossible if the thirst mechanism is intact and water is available. Hyper-osmolality caused by hypernatremia and water loss can lead to neurological cell shrinkage and brain injury. Loss of volume also can leads to circulatory collapse and organ failure. Hypernatremia is considered…

  • Research on the cross boundary Integration of Scientific & Technological Innovation and Artistic Creation

    The art and technology have a natural relationship, it can be said that the history of art is also the history of science and technology. The development of science and technology has expanded the space for the development of art and formed a new interactive relationship between art recipients and art creators. Therefore, in the future social development, the interaction and combination of art and technology will give both sides infinite vitality.

  • Development of Light Sensors to Measure Defoliation

    Sensors have become valuable tools in agriculture when decisions regarding inputs require precision and speed. For example, factors in estimating defoliation in row crops, such as intensive labor and, in particular, subjectivity, are greatly reduced with the use of sensors that can remove these limitations and biases. Estimates of defoliation are almost always overestimated due to human error and biased, unconscious efforts to locate injury. To address these issues, the accuracy and preciseness of a light-based sensor to detect defoliation was tested by measuring simulated levels of defoliation (0-100%) on paper “leaves” at seven light intensities. Results indicated that higher lux values were detected through thinner paper (filter paper) than through thicker paper (cardstock), demonstrating that leaf thickness could potentially affect accuracy of the light-sensor system. Despite some light penetrating the thinner paper with simulated defoliation levels, the two light sensors tested yielded accurate and precise predictions of defoliation (R2 > 0.95). This light-sensor approach could potentially be used in the field to report real-time measurements of defoliation in row crops, such as soybeans, or in other plant-based systems where losses of leaf area require monitoring in order to prevent economic injury.