Market eﬃciency is a central topic in ﬁnance. The notion of statistical arbitrage is a suitable instrument to investigate market eﬃciency without the need to specify an equilibrium model. We introduce a new deﬁnition of statistical arbitrage (named Strong Statistical Arbitrage, SSA in the following) modifying the original deﬁnition in an apparently inﬁnitesimal way. We show that some simple investment strategies, recognized as statistical arbitrages by the standard deﬁnition, do not test positive for SSA. We discuss the relations between the proposed deﬁnition and common deﬁnitions of arbitrage and prove that SSA is compatible with deviations from market eﬃciency in a “short term frame.” The idea is that if market anomalies are small, the markets do not deviate signiﬁcantly from eﬃciency, while an SSA requires time persistent anomalies on asset prices.
We aimed to investigate the efficacy of L-type voltage gated calcium channel blocker nitrendipine and levetiracetam in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindled male rats. In order to establish kindling model, 35 mg/kg PTZ injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to male wistar albino rats three days a week. Then, screw electrodes were placed in the skulls of the kindled rats. During the experiments, EEG activities and seizure behaviors of kindled rats were recorded. The kindled rats were divided into control (n=6), PTZ (n=6), nitrendipine (2.5 mg/kg (n=6), 5 mg/kg (n=6), 10 mg/kg (n=6)) and levetiracetam (10 mg/kg (n=6), 20 mg/kg (n=6), 40 mg/kg (n=6)) groups. Nitrendipine (5 mg/kg) and levetiracetam (20 mg/kg) were suppressed the spike frequency and the seizure score effectively (p0.05). The co-administration of nitrendipine and levetiracetam was not more effective than administration of nitrendipine or levetiracetam separately (p>0.05).
The presenWe often take for granted that students have the basic skills and mastery of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), however, it has been confirmed that not all students are equally competent in this regard. From the theories of socialization and acceptance of the technology, a structural equation model (SEM) is built to explore the variance in basic ICT skills levels of students at a business school. With the application of a questionnaire that measured in detail ICT skills of new students in a higher education institution in Mexico, the main findings show that according to the tables of impact value between constructs and the significance between constructs, the skills have a significant and significant negative impact on the side of anxiety / behavior and on the side of the utility there is a strong, significant impact.
Background: Recently, the concept of minimally invasive (MI) dentistry has emerged. MI calls for the selective removal of heavily infected and irreversibly denatured dentin caused by carious lesions while preserving dentin that is demineralized but not infected. Aim: To compare the minimal invasive potential (MIP) of conventional caries excavation (CCE), caries detection dye (CDD), and fluorescence aided caries excavation (FACE) methods in children. Subjects and Methods: A total of 105 carious primary molars in 43 children were included in this study. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the caries excavation method. Preoperative evaluation of the carious teeth was performed using digital radiography after sealing the cavities with a radiopaque material. Caries excavation was performed using CCE, CDD, or FACE method. The teeth were restored using self-cured glass ionomer. Post-operative radiographic examination was then performed. Pre-operative and post-operative widths and depths for the cavities were assessed. MIP was determined by comparing the prepared-cavity width and depth relative to the initial width and depth of the caries lesion, respectively. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the MIP of examined groups neither after comparing cavity widths at p=0.253 nor depths at p=0.06. FACE showed the highest mean values of MIP potential for cavity widths (1.41±0.36) and depths (2.04±0.74). Conclusions: CCE, CDD, and FACE showed comparable MIP in children.
Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Melamine-Based Dendrimer Encapsulated Pd/Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles
A melamine-based dendrimer was used to prepare a new class of heterogeneous Pd/Cu bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs). The physicochemical characteristics of Pd/Cu bimetallic NPS were studied with the aid of SEM, EDX, XRD, TG& DSC techniques. Leafs shape surface morphology and the presence of required palladium and copper ion were observed from SEM and EDX analysis respectively while TG& DSC showed good thermal stability, as well as XRD, revealed nano-shape FCC structure. The recycling ability of the catalyst was examined for five successive runs without any noteworthy loss of activity. The synthesized Pd/Cu bimetallic NPS exhibited high catalytic activity in the synthesis of ynone in which synthetic route was phosphine ligand-free.
Synthesis of Diazine-Based Dendrimer Supported Pd/Co Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Catalytic Activity for Sonogashira Coupling Reactions
A moisture-stable diazine-based dendrimer assisted heterogeneous bimetallic Pd/Co nanoparticles (NPs) was synthesized which showed a simple, profitable and environmentally sustainable operation for the Sonogashira reactions under copper and solvent-free conditions with regained easily and recycled four times without substantial activity loss. Furthermore, the dendrimer was analyzed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis whereas the Pd/Co bimetallic NPs was characterized by EDX, TGA & DSC, and XRD techniques.
Translating the Gains of Nursing Education Reforms into Quality Clinical Practice: The Role of Nursing Leaders
Nursing reforms in Nigeria took a quantum leap in 2018 with the alignment of nursing education with the mainstream of tertiary education in the country. Year 2023 has been scheduled for full implementation of the reform. The ultimate goal of reforms in nursing education is delivery of quality nursing care. This review was undertaken to highlight the critical roles of nursing leaders in Nigeria towards ensuring that the reforms in nursing education translate to quality nursing practice. The six critical roles discussed in the paper are expected to stimulate necessary activities towards maximizing the gains of nursing education reforms in the interest of the citizens.
Drivers of Food Choice among Lactating Women: The Case of Debrebirhan Town, North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
While access to foods and more information on healthy eating are important, decisions to adopt health-enhancing behavior of lactating women (nutritional vulnerable group) are often constrained by socio-economic barriers, personal and food related drivers that influence food choice. Therefore, this study aimed to assess drivers of food choice, & socio-economic variables associated with drivers of food choice among lactating women in Debrebirhan Town. A survey study was conducted on 423 randomly selected lactating women. Data was collected by face to face interview and analyzed via SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to find association b/n socio-economic variables and drivers of food choice. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Influences of religion, price, preparation convenience, health value and taste during food choice were responded by above half of women (92%, 84%, 83%, 66% & 56%). From multivariate analysis of binary logistic regression, influence of mood in food choice was associated to age (15-25 and 26-35 years) and estimated monthly income (≤3500 vs.>3500 ETB) with AOR (95%CI) of 3.24(1.3-8.08), 3.95(1.85-8.4) and 1.83(1.03-3.24). Age (15-25 & 26-35 years) was associated to choosing of foods for weight management with AOR (95%CI) of 2.64(1.12-6.22) and 3.52(1.66-7.43). 15-25 years’ age and self-employee were linked to religion influence in food choice with AOR (95%CI) of 0.09(0.01-0.48) and 4.13(1.4-12.24). Age (15-25 & 26-35 years), education (no, primary & secondary) and being housewife were associated to choosing of foods for their health value with AOR (95%CI) of 0.26(0.12-0.6), 0.37(0.18-0.76), 0.14(0.04-0.42), 0.25(0.13-0.54), 0.33(0.17-0.66) and 2.5(1.23-5). Avoidance of foods for nutrient content was related to age (15-25 &26-35 years) with AOR (95%CI) of 6.75(2.77-16.5) and 5.77(2.7-12.32). Primary education and being housewife were associated to ingredient contents of foods during selection with AOR (95%CI) of 0.29(0.14-0.6) and 2.24(1.15-4.35). Only family size (2-4 vs.>4 persons) was associated with price…
Clinical Evaluation of Self Ligating Versus Conventional Ligating Preadjusted Edgewise Brackets- A Prospective Clinical Study
Objective: The prospective study was taken up with null hypothesis that there is no difference clinically in treatment efficiency and gingival condition before start of treatment & twelve months after bonding in SLB and CLB system. Materials and Methods: This clinical study include 30 patients, divided into two groups of 15 each were included in the present study. Intraoral photos and study models taken at pre-treatment (T0), 5 weeks (T1), 10 weeks (T2) and 15 weeks (T3). Initial alignment was assessed by using the Little irregularity index (LII) in the mandibular anterior teeth. The subjects were also examined for bleeding potential of the tissues by using Gingival Index (GI). Results: The mean initial irregularity (MII) score for SLB T0, T5, T10 and T15 was 5.867, 2.252, 0.516 and 0.039. MII score for CLB T0, T5, T10 and T15 was 6.000, 3.630, 1.589 and 0.327. A two sample t-test revealed gap of 4.02% was statistically significant (T= 2.80, 0.012). This data suggests that total alignment change of mandibular arch from T 0 to T 15 was better in SLB compared to CLB group. The mean increase of GI with SLB system was 0.183 while for CLB were equal to 0.98. This difference of GI between SLB and CLB before and after twelve months of bonding was statistically significant (T= -2.96, P value=0.010). Conclusion: The present study could facilitate the orthodontist to compare the potential benefits of SLB over the CLB system that facilitate less gingival bleeding and increase in alignment efficiency.
Knowledge about Emergency Management of Avulsed Tooth Amongst Medical Students: a Questionnaire Based Study
Introduction: Dental avulsion is an emergency that could happen anytime, anywhere and medical health professionals are the first to whom parents usually take their children to seek emergency treatment. Therefore, medical health professionals should have adequate basic knowledge regarding its management. Aim: This study was conducted to assess basic knowledge regarding emergency management of avulsed tooth amongst medical students. Method: This cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was carried out amongst 150 medical students consisting of customized 10 multiple choice questions based on basic knowledge about and preferred methods of managing avulsed tooth. Results: The results showed that most of them knew what avulsion is but almost 50% of them responded that they will refer or call for help from Dental surgeon. Only 30% had knowledge about basic and first aid management that is immediate repositioning of avulsed tooth in its socket. Conclusion: The medical students have inadequate knowledge about primary management of avulsion. They should be trained in this aspect so that they can manage such emergencies if Dental Surgeon is not available.