Basic and Applied Sciences

  • Sunscreen and Coral Reef

    Coral reefs also provide major essential benefits to people, like food production, tourism, biotechnology development, and coastal protection. While covering less than 1% of the ocean surface, coral reefs provide habitat for nearly one third of marine fish species as well as 10% of all fish captured for human consumption. In some situations, primarily related to the number of swimmers and the geography of the shoreline, concentrations of oxybenzone far exceed the levels shown to be harmful to corals [1]. Coral reefs consist of organisms in delicate equilibria that are susceptible to small changes in their surroundings. Recent natural and man-made disruptions, direct or indirect, such as changes in ocean temperature and chemistry, ingress of invasive species, pathogens, pollution and deleterious fishing practices, have been blamed for the poor health, or even the outright destruction, of some coral reefs [2]. Florida has the world’s third largest barrier reef, with nearly 1,400 species of plants and animals and 500 species of fish, but the reef is vanishing fast. Research has found that roughly half of the reef has disappeared over the past 250 years. Coverage of acropora, the primary genus of reef-building corals, has plummeted 97% [3]. In 2015, the nonprofit Haereticus Environmental Laboratory surveyed Trunk Bay beach on St. John, where visitors ranged from 2,000 to 5,000 swimmers daily, and estimated over 6,000 pounds of sunscreen was deposited on the reef annually. The same year, it found an average of 412 pounds of sunscreen was deposited daily on the reef at Hanauma Bay, a popular snorkeling destination in Oahu (Hawaii) that draws an average of 2,600 swimmers each day. Over the past three years, one – fifth of the world’s coral reefs have died off — and there is a growing awareness that sunscreen is playing a role [4,5]. 82,000…

  • Elderly architectural design based on humanized concept—Take the design of a nursing home in Yichang, hubei province as an example

    This nursing home architectural design is based on a human perspective.The article elaborates on the corresponding design of the building to meet the psychological needs and living habits of the elderly.This is to help to explore how to design a qualified nursing home that meets the physical and mental needs of the elderly in today’s social situation.

  • Recent developments and advances in Ti/TiO2-NTs/PbO2 electrodes:A general Review of their controllable preparation and application in wastwater treatment

    Ti/TiO2-NTs(nanotubes)/PbO2 is a new composite electrode material,which has been considered as an optimal electrode material for electrochemical oxidation of organic contaminants in the aquatic environmentthat due to its its good physical and chemical properties,such as good electrocatalytic activity, high oxygen evolution potential, corrosion resistance, good stability, environmental friendliness and simple preparation. The fundamental research and practical application of Ti/ TiO2-NTs(nanotubes)/PbO2 electrodes in the mineralization of organic pollutants have been well developed up to now. So this paper mainly reviews the preparation methods of Ti/TiO2-NTs/ PbO2 electrodes and the structural characterization methods of electrode materials first. And then, the basic principle of electrocatalytic oxidation will be introduced in detail and the application of this electrodes in water treatment is going to be summarized systematically. Further, we also proposed the existing problems in recent research and the potential development direction of electrocatalytic water treatment technology in the future, which could provide reference for the follow-up research.

  • Study on the Mechanism of Humic Acid on Ultrafiltration Membrane

    In view of the problem of clogging of ultrafiltration membrane in ultrafiltration process, the contamination mechanism of humic acid solution on ultrafiltration membrane was studied in depth. Through the ultrafiltration test of different concentrations of humic acid solution, it was found that humic acid can cause pollution to the ultrafiltration membrane, and the higher the humic acid concentration, the more serious the membrane contamination. The introduction of calcium carbonate particles can delay the progress of ultrafiltration membrane fouling in the initial stage of ultrafiltration, but as the ultrafiltration time increases, the membrane fouling rate increases rapidly. The kaolin particles can aggravate the contamination of the ultrafiltration membrane by humic acid, and the contamination can be washed away by the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The introduction of calcium ions can significantly aggravate membrane fouling and polymerize humic acid molecular chains. Sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite alkali solution can effectively remove the humic acid pollution on the ultrafiltration membrane, wherein the sodium hydroxide solution has better cleaning effect, and the calcium carbonate-containing pollutant can be washed with a citric acid solution.

  • A mathematical model for grading clouds to study solar flares based on fuzzy c-means algorithm

    In this paper, a cloud-level grading comprehensive evaluation model based on fuzzy c-means algorithm is established. The image is binarized by the maximum inter-class variance method to obtain the dim curve. According to the dim curve of the four quadrants, the distribution and thickness of the cloud layer are discriminated. Three attributes of the effective area of the cloud layer, the total amount of clouds, and the thickness of the cloud amount are selected as the characteristic data of the comprehensive evaluation model.

  • Food insecurity in Nigeria and the need for effectual mitigating measures

    The downward slide in Nigeria’s food production has gradually led the country into becoming a food-deficit, food importing Nation because of the discovery of petroleum. Nigeria has degenerated into a significant food importing nation because the government neglected the agricultural sector for petroleum which is seen as a much viable resource income. As a consequence, the country is plunged into food insecurity because of rising prices of imported foods. Presently, Nigeria faces food shortage challenges and hunger. Before we can adequately address the underlying problems plaguing the food security system, we need to address the factors influencing agricultural development and sustainability in the economy with a view to improving on food security. Any policy design to tackle this should include inputs supply channels, technology improvement avenues and, credits and subsidies that are not cumbersome and needed. Until we see food insecurity as a gross abuse of human right, the paradigm shift advocated may never be attained.

  • Gender Issues on Economic Diversification Through Agriculture in Nigeria: A Thematic Discuss

    Traditionally, the relevance of agriculture in economic development rests on the contributions of the agriculture sector in economic development and, women constitute a large proportion of agricultural labour and participants. The contributions of women to agricultural production and economic development in Nigeria are critically underrepresented in spite of the roles they play in the sector. They compete much more favourably than the men in terms of participation in agricultural activities, contributions to agriculture based economy and food security yet, are relegated in decisions concerning agricultural activities. The sustenance of agriculture and agriculture based economic diversification in Nigeria may not be feasible without an adequate recognition of women’s efforts and, therefore should be given a place of pride in decision-making in agricultural activities. Some gender based constraints have been noted to hinder women’s participation in productive agricultural activities. These gender biases exist due to customs and beliefs that confine women to the background. Gender mainstreaming remains one of the options in diversifying the economy with guaranteed effective women participation. It is suggested that Government policies and programs designed to stimulate agricultural production, should take into account the role of women. A gender dimension may be incorporated into all phases of the policy cycle. This should describe in detail a format of how gender can be mainstreamed in every phase of the policy cycle.

  • Influential Factors of Success Level of Agricultural Counseling and Technical Companies from Tabriz Town Farmers and Technical-Counseling Companies’ Perspective

    The aim of current investigation was to study influential factors of success level of technical and counseling companies from Tabriz Town farmers and technical-counseling companies’ perspective. Present research is of applied type. Statistical population of current study involves 131 leading farmers of Tabriz city and 45 technical counseling companies that are working at four districts of Khosroshahr,Basmenj, Tabriz Suburban and Espiran. Most of the study farmers were male, married, able to read and write (graduation level), with average age 46. The highest percent of the distribution was dedicated to lands 1-5 hectares with 56.48%. Most farmers showed their personal tendency of referring to the company expert’s office, announcing that personal referral has the highest advantage for them. Moreover, from these framers’ perspective, the most important barriers on the way of cooperating with the companies are costs imposed to them by the companies. According to these farmers, the indexes of company’s help in solving farmers’ problems, feeling free in solving regional issues and the role of researches in solving their problems had the lowest effects in company’s success in the field of providing service to the famers. Results of stepwise (multivariate) regression from farmers’ perspective indicated that 11independent variables remained in the final model. In this regression, the coefficient of determination of the variables was 83%, F-value of the table was 7.23%and its level of significance was 0.0085. Results of stepwise regression from companies’ perspective indicated that three independent variables remained at final model. Here coefficient of determination of the variables was 0.96%, F-value of the table was 4.83 and its level of significance was 0.034.

  • Monte Carlo Simulation for Modified Parametric Of Sample Selection Models Through Fuzzy Approach

    The sample selection model is a combination of the regression and probit models. The models are usually estimated by Heckman’s two-step estimator. However, Heckman’s two-step estimator often performs poorly. In the context of parametric methods, the sample selection model is studied. The best approach is to take advantage of the tools provided by the theory of fuzzy sets. It appears very suitable for modeling vague concepts. It is difficult to determine some of the criteria and arrive at a quantitative value. Fuzzy sets theory and its properties through the concept of fuzzy number. The fuzzy function used for solving uncertain of a parametric sample selection model. Estimates from the fuzzy are used to calculate some of equation of the sample selection model. Finally, estimates of the Mean, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the other estimators can be obtained by Heckman two-step estimator through iteration from some parameters and some of values.

  • Odontologic atention on oncological practice

    Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, cancer is a public health problem, especially among developing countries, where it is expected that in the coming decades, the impact of the disease on the population will correspond to 80% of the more than 20 million cases new estimates for 2025. Despite the advances in the technologies and drugs of antineoplastic therapy, several oral repercussions can be observed. Thus, dentistry plays a fundamental role in the restoration of general health and, consequently, the quality of life of these individuals. Objectives: To verify the dental assistance in the oncological practice. Methodology: Literature review where we searched for published articles available on the internet in the database systems: Medlars on line International Literature (Medline), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs) and Brazilian Bibliography of Dentistry (BBO) present on the website of the Virtual Health Library (BVS). Results and Discussion: The literature evidences the need for oral-dental care and the inclusion of the dental surgeon in the multi and inter-transdisciplinary medical team required for good oncological practice. The literature is unanimous in indicating the need for medical intervention with the support of a multidisciplinary health team, including dental surgeon, in order to ensure adequate performance of antineoplastic therapies and specific care in the control of oral side effects and consequent general repercussions. Dentistry, for example, the prevention, treatment and control of diseases such as mucositis, xerostomia, cavities, dental infections and opportunistic mouth. Precariousness or even lack of adequate dental care may compromise oncological practice. Conclusion: The dentist incorporated into the oncological practice contributes to the quality of the care, favoring the integral care with attention to the oral condition and systemic repercussions.