Basic and Applied Sciences

  • Odor evaluation scales for neoplastic wounds: an integrating review

    Introduction: Cancer is a public health problem, and among patients with neoplasias, 5 to 10% will develop disease-related wounds where they affect the quality of life of the patient. Odor is the most prevalent symptomatology and requires frequent assessment to identify appropriate conduct and necessary adjustments. Objective: To verify the existence of odor evaluation instruments in neoplastic wounds. Methodology: This is an integrative review of the literature. The bibliographical survey was performed from September to October 2016 in the databases Lilacs, SciELO, IBECS and MEDLINE, with no time limit. Original articles were included in Portuguese, Spanish and English, published in full and electronically available, totaling 15 articles. Results and Discussion: Among the symptoms of neoplastic wounds, bad odor is one of the most complex to address and should be explored carefully and scientifically, for decision-making and interventions. In this research were found only scales and no instrument. Nine assessment scales were found, most of them produced by nurses, who evaluated only the intensity of the odor, and only two evaluated the distance and intensity. The most used scale was the qualitative and quantitative odor evaluation guide, designed to evaluate products and / or coverings in neoplastic wound dressings, scoring the symptom in four levels. As for validation, only the Teler scale was validated, scoring on six levels. Therefore, even in the absence of validity, the scales have been used in clinical practice, both in verifying the efficacy of the treatment for odor control and in the measurement of the symptom itself. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated to date a single validated scale, pointing to the need to develop new tools in order to incorporate validated and reliable instruments into clinical practice.

  • Polysomnography and bruxism

    Introduction: Bruxism is a parafunctional oral activity that includes tightening, grinding and clapping teeth during sleep or wakefulness. Sleep bruxism (BS) is detected by electromyography (EMG) through the recording of masticatory muscle function during sleep. The EMG should be part of a more comprehensive examination, the polysomnography (PSG). Objectives: To analyze the polysomnographic aspects of bruxism and its relation to sleep disorders. Methodology: An integrative review was carried out in MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF and SCIELO databases, with publications between 2012 and 2017, in Portuguese and English, using the descriptors: “Bruxism” and “Polissonography”. Result: 83 related articles were found, of which 3 served as theoretical basis. Discussion: PSG records the main nocturnal physiological events through electrodes and sensors arranged along the skull, which allows the identification of disorders, such as BS. In addition to the EMG there is the use of electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram and respiratory activity. PSG characterizes bruxism as abnormal continuous or intercalated peaks of temporo-massetric activity. During sleep, in normal individuals, physiologically, there are up to two mandibular movements per hour, but in the pathological state this happens four to twelve times an hour. Bruxism events occur mainly during light sleep (non-REM) and are usually associated with brief non-periodic body movements and micro-awakenings, which generate sleep fragmentation. It is believed that BS is one of the last events following brain and cardiac activations of micro arousers in response to respiratory obstruction. Conclusion: The aetiopathogenesis of BS is multifactorial, covering hereditary factors, disorders of the nervous system, micro-arousals, stress and anxiety. Thus the treatment is based on the signs and symptoms presented by the patients. Measures such as placement of stabilizing plaques, relaxation strategies and some drugs are proposed for therapy.

  • Alzheimer: a challenge for assistance and the role of nurse educators

    Introduction: The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has increased worldwide as the population over 65 years old increases. According to Alzheimer’s disease this disease is a type of dementia that affects 35.6 million people worldwide. Although educating and assisting are really important, when it comes to a degenerative disease in which the patient has difficulty acting on his own behalf, it becomes arduous the educational and care procedures aimed at the care recipient and their families. Objectives: to verify the main challenges of the educator and care role of the patient without development of Alzheimer’s disease. Metrology: For an elaboration of the review was carried out for the literature in the SciELO (Online Electronic Scientific Library) database using nursing and Alzheimer’s disease. Applying the cut of the last 3 years (2015-2017), 11 were found which composes the bibliographic review. Results and Discussions: There was a shortage of medical care instruments in AD by nurses. Consequently, the lack of clarification for family members regarding continuity of care is evident, since it is essential or estimated cognitive by the family, in order to make patients independent. This in fact emphasizes the role of nurse educator in elucidating family members about the practice of care and the development of the disease. Conclusion: Associating cognitive stimulation with drug treatment and possible attenuation as sequelae of the disease. Activities such as manual practices, reading, dancing, identification of objects and temporal orientation, can awaken greater stability. Thus, the nursing professional favors the quality of life of the patients; therefore, it minimizes the difficulties of the caregivers.

  • The prevalence of spinal cord injury in young adults in Brazil

    Introduction: Spinal cord injury (MRT) is a traumatic external injury that compromises or not the function of the spinal cord or nerve roots. In Brazil it is estimated that about 40 new cases per year per million inhabitants occur. OBJECTIVES: To compare scientific publications through an integrative review, related to the prevalence of MRT in young adults in Brazil. Methodology: This is an integrative review based on articles from LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences) and SCIELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), published from 2007 to 2017. It was built in the following phases: 1) problem formulation 2) data collection 3) data evaluation 4) analysis and interpretation 5) presentation of results. Results and Discussion: It was observed that the articles found that deal with spinal cord trauma, point to the prevalence of MRT in an age group that picks up from childhood the old age being more recurrent in young male adults. The results reveal that accidents involving cervical trauma are more frequent in the age group of 20- to 30-year-old males. It has also been observed in state hospitals that TRM injuries generate a longer time of hospitalization and, consequently, an increase in hospitalization costs. The main etiologies of TRM were falls and traffic accidents with cars and motorcycles. Conclusion: It is extremely important to educate the population about the risks of TRM through health education, as well as the creation of preventive campaigns both to reduce the occurrence of traffic accidents and to reduce the incidence of falls.