International Journal of Dental Research and Reviews

  • A review on the performance of the proactive implant surface

    Objective: to review the performance of the proactive hydrophilic implant system in the implantology practice. Materials and methods: a thorough literature review took place by looking into pubmed and google scholar searching engines. A total number of 310 articles were found. The aim was to review the literature commenting on the clinical and microlevel performances. Hence, 21 articles were included to cover three major categories which are: in Microlevel (group A), clinical (group B), and performance with grafting materials (group C). Results: Group A; showed stable osseointegration indicating the efficacy of the hydrophilic proactive surface. Group B; indicated favourable outcomes in managing cases of immediate implants with successful variable loading protocols. Group C; showed favourable reactions with grafting and non-grafting groups. Conclusion: It seems that the proactive implant surface is showing promising results with acceptable supporting literature so far.

  • Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment Outcomes Provided by Undergraduate Students and Endodontic Specialists

    Introduction: A growing interest from investigators and practitioners have been registered in assessing patients’ quality of life and satisfaction with effectiveness of provided dental care. Specific treatment-related satisfaction measures have been introduced to recognize individuals’ perceptions of root canal treatment outcomes. Methods: Two hundred systemically healthy patients with irreversible inflammation of the dental pulp were endodontically treated and filled in anonymously a questionnaire consisting of two parts: 1) personal and demographic information (age, gender, occupation, education, income), and 2) seven semantic differential scales evaluating personal satisfaction two weeks after root canal treatment was completed. Level of satisfaction was assessed by assigning scores from 1 to 10 along continuous bipolar scales, separately for each treated tooth. Results: Very high overall satisfaction was registered in both groups with the scores being higher for patients treated by students but the difference was insignificant (p=0.068). Patients were significantly more pleased with their root canal treatment provided by specialists followed by undergraduate students (p=0.017). On the contrary, satisfaction with treatment cost was significantly lower for those treated by specialists compared to values registered by students’ patients (p< 0.0001). Conclusions: Endodontic treatment provided by undergraduate students and endodontic specialist resulted in an extremely high level of overall satisfaction almost equal for both groups. Treatment painfulness, postoperative esthetics and chewing ability were highly appreciated regardless of the treatment provider but perception of postoperative pleasantness was significantly higher for specialists. Significantly greater satisfaction with the treatment cost was registered in the group treated by students.

  • A Simplified Method for Fabrication of Interim Prosthesis for Maryland Bridge

    An edentulous space in the mandibular anterior region can produce a psychological impact on the young patient and is one of the most difficult esthetic challenges in dentistry. With the advent of resin cements , Maryland bridge are highly effective treatment option in these situations resulting in high levels of patient satisfaction. Provisional restorations are not much documented for Maryland bridge and needs its due consideration while treatment planning. This clinical report describes an efficient and simplified technique for provisionalisation of Maryland bridge.

  • Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH): Estimating prevalence and characteristics among children of Pune, Maharashtra

    Background: Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a qualitative defect of enamel mineralisation with worldwide presence. In India, most data has been have been published from North and South India and not much data has been published from West and East India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence, defect characteristics and severity of MIH among children of Pune, Maharashtra. Method: This cross-sectional study included 1080 children in the age range of 8-12 years, studying in Zila Parishad Primary Schools from Pune, Maharashtra, India. The dental examination was conducted for the diagnosis of MIH by a single well-trained and calibrated pedodontist in day light conditions using the EAPD 2003 criteria. The teeth were examined in wet condition. The data was collected and recorded in MS excel sheets and subjected to statistical analysis.Statistical Analysis: All the analyses were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22.0 version (Chicago, Inc., USA). To compare the dichotomous variables Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used. P-value of

  • Soft Tissue Cephalometric Changes in Class I Patients Treated with Extraction and Non Extraction Modalities

    Background : Extractions are frequently used to treat crowding, protrusion of teeth and the soft tissue covering. The common consequences of extraction therapy were believed to be “dished-in profiles”, constriction of dental arch, and increased width of the buccal corridor space, whereas non extraction treatment results in poor stability and protrusive profile in borderline cases. Aim: Aim of the present study was to compare the cephalometric soft tissue changes between Class I malocclusion patients who were treated with first premolar extractions and Class I malocclusion patients who were treated with non extraction with similar appliances. Methods and Material: It is a retrospective study were the treatment records of 50 (25: extraction and 25: non extraction) orthodontic patients with Angles and skeletal Class I malocclusion of age between 13-30 years were randomly selected. Both pre and post treatment lateral cephalograms were traced manually and soft tissue changes were measured and analyzed between extraction & non- extraction group. Statistical analysis: Independent samples t test, Paired-t test. Results: Within extraction group, Angle of convexity, Upper lip to e-line, lower lip to e-line, nose prominence and interlabial gap are the parameters which has shown statistically significant(p=.000*)difference after the treatment and within the non extraction group upper lip thickness was the only parameter which has shown statistically significant (p=.005*) difference after the treatment. The remaining parameters have not shown any significant difference Conclusions: Profile improvement was better with extraction protocol compared to non-extraction therapy. Lip competence was better achieved with extraction therapy Overall the choice of the treatment modality depends on the severity of the problem.

  • To evaluate the changes in Natural Head Position after Orthognathic surgeries in Class II patients and Class III patients

    After the introduction of cephalometric radiography, orthodontists have been using cephalometric analysis to plan orthodontic treatment and to evaluate the treatment results. For cephalometric analysis, Sella-Nasion plane and the Frankfort horizontal plane are considered as stable horizontal reference planes. Unfortunately, measurements based on the Frankfort horizontal plane do not always correspond with clinical examination. Therefore, the use of the true horizontal line (THL) and true vertical line (TVL) as alternatives seems to be advisable. This study was done in order to compare and evaluate the changes in natural head position in patients who underwent maxillary Lefort I osteotomy and mandibular set back orthognathic surgery. Thirteen pre treatment(T1) and post treatment(T2) lateral cephalometric radiographs were collected. The T1 lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at the beginning of the treatment, and the T2 data immediately after the removal of the orthodontic appliances. The patients were instructed to stand in their natural position. 9 landmarks and 6 reference planes were traced. Results showed that Class I patients who had received conventional orthodontic treatment showed a minimal or no change in their NHP, but some Class III patients showed a change in their NHP,which tended towards head extension. Patients who have undergone Lefort I surgery and BSSO set back have shown the changes in their natural head position the differences were in their SNA, SNB, ANB, Facial contour angle and Frankfort horizontal plane angle.

  • Impact of primary endodontic treatment provided by undergraduate students and endodontic specialists on patients’ quality of life

    Everyday life of individuals can be significantly influenced by positive and negative changes in oral health status, by symptoms and severity of oral disorders and diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) proclaims a necessity to measure health and the effects of health care not only on the basis of changes in the frequency and severity of diseases but also by estimation of patients’ well-being assessed with the improvement in their quality of life. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of primary root canal treatment on the perceived quality of life amongst patients treated by providers with different qualification and experience. Two hundred systemically healthy, mentally fit and legally capable of signing an informed consent patients needing an endodontic care were randomly selected and participated voluntarily in the study conducted in the Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria. The treatment was provided by fourth-year and fifth-year students in the course of their clinical exercises and by five endodontic specialists. The study instrument was the modified Oral Health Impact Profile comprising 17 items which was filled in anonymously by all participants. The interview was carried out before the root canal treatment and two weeks after it was completed by one and the same examiner. The impact of endodontic disease and its treatment was recognized by seven conceptual dimensions: functional limitation, physical pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability, psychological disability, social disability and handicap. The responses of the OHIP items were made on a five-point scale ranging from 0 = never, 1 = hardly ever, 2 = occasionally, 3 = fairly often to 4 = very often. The analyses of the results revealed that patients perceived their quality of life impaired because of the irreversible inflammation of the dental pulp. The negative impact of…

  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum prevalence correlates with salivary microbial burden in Orthodontic patients

    Objectives: Many factors influence the presence and growth of oral microbial flora, including the use of orthodontic appliances. Although much research has focused on classical oral pathogens, much less information is available to determine the relationship between Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum among these patients. The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between oral prevalence of Aggregatibacter and Fusobacterium among orthodontic and non-orthodontic patient saliva samples. Experimental Methods: This study was a retrospective study of previously collected saliva samples from orthodontic (n=55) and non-orthodontic (n=55) patients using an approved protocol. DNA was extracted and screened for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Males and females were equally represented, although a majority of patients participating in this study were Hispanics and ethnic minorities. Results: PCR analysis of the DNA revealed that 54.5% of orthodontic samples harbored significant levels of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans, while 29.1% of non-orthodontic samples harbored significant levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (p=0.0068). In addition, screening for Fusobacterium revealed 38% of orthodontic samples harbored this organism, compared with 33% of non-orthodontic samples (p=0.4599). Screening of these samples using the 16S universal primer revealed AA-positive orthodontic samples had the highest PCR band intensity, with similar band intensity of AA-Negative orthodontic samples AA-positive non-orthodontic samples, AA-negative non-orthodontic samples. While screening for Fusobacterium using the 16S universal primer revealed higher band intensity (microbial burden) among the FN-positive samples among both the orthodontic and non-orthodontic samples. In brief, although microbial burden was lower among the corresponding non-orthodontic samples in general, the FN-positive samples were found to harbor the highest band intensity and microbial burden. Conclusions: This study provides significant data that clearly suggest a correlation between overall microbial oral burden and Aggregatibacter presence in orthodontic patients. Both AA and FN were more prevalent among orthodontic patient samples than non-orthodontic samples, although the…

  • Sex Differences in Dentin Hypersensitivity

    EIntroduction: Teeth that are more sensitive to pain stimuli are called hypersensitive. Dentin hypersensitivity is estimated to be suffered by one in six people and may involve one or more teeth. Various studies suggested that sex affects the experience of pain, but just a few of them focus on dental pain. Objective: this study aimed to determine sex based differences in dentin hypersensitivity. Methodology: this study is a descriptive study with consecutive sampling. The population of this study were all patients who came for treatment to Faculty of Dentistry, Padjadjaran University. A total amount 132 samples who had dentin hypersensitivity were collected. Result: the case of dentin hypersensitivity is more common in women and most frequently in patients aged 20-30 years. The mandibular teeth in women were more prone to dentin hypersensitivity (59.3%). The maxillary and mandibular premolar were the type of the tooth that most experienced dentin hypersensitivity in both women and men. Patients with positive test results on tactile stimuli were 81 people (94.19%) for women and 42 people (91.30%) for men. Patients with positive test result on hot stimuli were 74 people (86.05%) for women and 37 people (80.43%) for men. Patients with positive tests on cold stimuli were 85 (98.84%) for women and 44 ((95.65%) for men. The scale result of sensitivity response to electric pulp tester in women (1.62) was lower than men (2.09). Conclusion of this study is women experience more dentin hypersensitivity to tactile, thermal and electric stimuli than men.


    The systematic interdisciplinary treatment approach is shared by several dental specialties especially periodontics. In the present era where a lot of people are seeking orthodontic treatment, the multidisciplinary treatment approach for quick and better results cannot be overlooked. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes since the teeth are confined to the nonflexible alveolar bone. To accelerate the tooth movement the orthodontists and the periodontists together have worked out a successful formula which is termed Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (PAOO) or this method has been suggested to enhance tooth movement and, consequently, reduces orthodontic treatment time as a whole. This method not only enhances the width of the alveolar bone but also decreases the duration of the treatment and chances of apical root resoption, reducing the chances of relapse. A proper case selection, careful surgical procedure, and accurate orthodontic movements are important for the success of wilckodontics. Thus, this article attempts to review the historical perspective of these therapeutic approaches, discusses the biological reasons underlying its use, mentions its main indications and contraindications and its modifications. Keywords: Periodontics, orthodontic tooth movement, periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontic