Food and Nutrition Research

  • Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders

    The yield and physicochemical properties of single grain and multigrain akamu powders were evaluated. Akamu, ogi or pap, powders were produced by soaking (fermenting) cereal grains (48-72 h), wet-milling, sieving, dewatering, drying (50oC) and pulverizing maize (MBA), pearl millet (PMBA) and sorghum (SBA). Multigrain akamu was produced by co-fermenting equal proportions of maize, pearl millet and sorghum (Blend1); and singly fermenting these cereals and blending the end products (Blend2). Yield, proximate and mineral compositions, functional and sensory properties of akamu were analyzed following established methods. The yield of MBA, PMBA, SBA, Blend1 and Blend2 were respectively 60%, 70%, 80%, 53.33% and 68.67%. Chemically, SBA had significantly (p

  • Comparison between creatine monohydrate and creatine HCl on body composition and performance of the Brazilian Olympic team

    Weight-dependent athletes have trouble to balance the energy consumption to the needs of the sport they practice. As performance depends on that balance, it would be ideal to find a supplement that would be ergogenic without promoting weight increase. Monohydrate creatine supplementation is effective to improve strength and power but water retention and weight gain are side effects that avoid its use. An alternative molecule, creatine HCl, proposes the same an ergogenic effects without the undesirable effects. So, this study compared the effects of both creatines on performance and body composition of elite gymnastics athletes. 11 males, 18 to 25 years old took part into the randomized cross-over model: Creatine Monohydrate Supplement (MCG), resistant starch (RS) and HCl Supplement (HClG). Pre and Post all the experimental conditions, body fat percentage, body weight, lean body mass and total water amount were measured, bench press and leg press 1RM test were also carried out. Lean mass increased with both treatments (p

  • Drivers of Food Choice among Lactating Women: The Case of Debrebirhan Town, North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    While access to foods and more information on healthy eating are important, decisions to adopt health-enhancing behavior of lactating women (nutritional vulnerable group) are often constrained by socio-economic barriers, personal and food related drivers that influence food choice. Therefore, this study aimed to assess drivers of food choice, & socio-economic variables associated with drivers of food choice among lactating women in Debrebirhan Town. A survey study was conducted on 423 randomly selected lactating women. Data was collected by face to face interview and analyzed via SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to find association b/n socio-economic variables and drivers of food choice. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Influences of religion, price, preparation convenience, health value and taste during food choice were responded by above half of women (92%, 84%, 83%, 66% & 56%). From multivariate analysis of binary logistic regression, influence of mood in food choice was associated to age (15-25 and 26-35 years) and estimated monthly income (≤3500 vs.>3500 ETB) with AOR (95%CI) of 3.24(1.3-8.08), 3.95(1.85-8.4) and 1.83(1.03-3.24). Age (15-25 & 26-35 years) was associated to choosing of foods for weight management with AOR (95%CI) of 2.64(1.12-6.22) and 3.52(1.66-7.43). 15-25 years’ age and self-employee were linked to religion influence in food choice with AOR (95%CI) of 0.09(0.01-0.48) and 4.13(1.4-12.24). Age (15-25 & 26-35 years), education (no, primary & secondary) and being housewife were associated to choosing of foods for their health value with AOR (95%CI) of 0.26(0.12-0.6), 0.37(0.18-0.76), 0.14(0.04-0.42), 0.25(0.13-0.54), 0.33(0.17-0.66) and 2.5(1.23-5). Avoidance of foods for nutrient content was related to age (15-25 &26-35 years) with AOR (95%CI) of 6.75(2.77-16.5) and 5.77(2.7-12.32). Primary education and being housewife were associated to ingredient contents of foods during selection with AOR (95%CI) of 0.29(0.14-0.6) and 2.24(1.15-4.35). Only family size (2-4 vs.>4 persons) was associated with price…

  • Evaluation of the Physico-chemical, Functional and sensory attributes of instant fufu developed from bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum)

    In this study, the eating qualities and physicochemical properties of three fufu samples were produced and evaluated, while the functional properties of the fufu flours were also determined. The results obtained for the functional properties of swelling power were 12.26, 12.13, and 12.35; solubility 8.73, 6.79 and 5.27; water binding capacity 276.15, 261.02 and 280.05; bulk density 0.53, 0.56 and 0.76; pH 6.4, 6.3 and 6.8; and dispersibility 59.2, 59.8 and 8.68 for samples A, B and R, respectively. Sample R (control) had the highest mean values for water binding capacity, pH, swelling power and bulk density while sample A had the highest mean value for solubility. Sample B had the lowest mean values for all the functional properties measured while Sample R (commercial yam fufu) was liked most in terms of aroma, taste, colour, mouldability and texture. From the results, sample A (80% bitter yam flour and 20% cassava starch) had relatively better sensory attributes than sample B (70% bitter yam flour and 30% cassava starch), as well as better functional properties.

  • A Quantitative Assessment of the Nutritional Value of the Food for the School Nutrition Programme in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    The aim of the study was to determine the nutritional value of the food for the school nutritional programme in one district in KwaZulu-Natal Province. A positivist research paradigm and a quantitative research approach were used in the study. Furthermore, a cross-sectional research design was utilized. The quantitative data was analysed using SPSS and Excel and was presented in texts and tables. The study found that the average daily intake per learner from the school nutrition programme was 218 Kcal energy, 7.7g of protein, 1.8g of fat and 3.2g of dietary fibre. These were all below 30% of RDA values. The observed mean protein, energy and vitamin K intakes per child per day were significantly lower than the expected mean intake for the nutrients. Intakes of other nutrients were within the limits of the prescribed amounts according to the menu quantity schedule.There were variations in the nutrient intake among learners in different schools due to inconsistent supply of food items by service providers.

  • Micronutrient Composition and its Bio-availability in Complementary Foods Developed From Cereal (Millet/Maize), Soybean and Monkey kola Flours

    The micronutrient composition of complementary foods produced from blends of cereal (millet/maize), soybean and monkey kola flours were evaluated. Seven millet-based blends (A1 to G1) and maizebased blends (A2 to G2) were analyzed for total carotene content. Thereafter, 100% millet, 100% maize, the two millet and maize based blends that had the highest carotene content were analyzed for total minerals (Ca, Mg, P, Fe, and Zn) and their bio-availability comparing with a commercially available complementary product (cerelac maize) which served as control. The total carotene content of the test samples ranged from 27.69 to 164.58μg/100g in the milletbased blends and from 233.61 to 464.48μg/100g in the maize-based blends. Sample G1 and all the maize-based blends were found to be higher in total carotene when compared to the control. Total mineral content result showed that calcium ranged from 91.09 to 121.59mg/100g and their bioavailability ranged from 44.14 to 67.96% while the control had a total calcium content of 337.15mg/100g and a bio-availability of 58.92%. Magnesium in the test samples ranged from 10.44 to 12.29mg/100g and bio-availability of 82.56 to 99.33% while the control was found to be 11.18mg/100g and a bioavailability of 87.65%. Phosphorous was from 7.32 to 17.12mg/100g and bio-availability was from 54.48 to 81.43% but the control had 17.12mg/100g and a bio-availability of 61.35%. Iron had a range of 9.31 to 26.27mg/100g and bio-availability from 8.19 to 64.81%, whereas the control had 27.74mg/100g and a bio-availability of 51.47%. Zinc from 1.85 to 6.27mg/100g and bio-availability of 51.62 to 74.71% while C3 had 3.93mg/100g and a bio-availability of 42.86%. This means that complementary foods from blends of cereal, soybean and monkey kola flours compared with commercially available complementary products and are suitable to improve the micronutrient intake of infant and young children in developing countries.


    Introduction: In addition to its anti-cancer action, p53 and ATM play an important role in oxidative balance control, promoting cell repair and survival. High fat diets can lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species (EROS). Grape polyphenols seem to reduce EROS and restore oxidative balance, favoring the performance of p53 and ATM. Objetive: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of high polyphenols beverages associated with a high fat diet in mRNA levels of p53 and ATM. Methods: Fifty female rats were divided into five groups: Control Group (CG) – control diet (4% fat); High fat diet group (HFD) – high fat diet (20% fat); Grape Juice Group (GJ) – grape juice (15 ml/day) + high fat diet; Red Wine Group (RW) – red wine (10 ml/day) + high fat diet; Resveratrol Solution Group (RS) – resveratrol solution (15 ml/day) + high fat diet. Eight weeks later, muscular and adipose tissue were collected and subjected to PCR analysis. Results: In muscular tissue, the highest p53 mRNA expression was found in the GJ and VT group, and not in the SR as expected. In adipose tissue, GJ presented the highest expression among all groups. TpATM expression was higher in the HFD, both in adipose and muscle tissue. Treatment with high polyphenols beverages normalized TpATM expression, especially in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In this experimental model, high fat diet alters ATM mRNA levels, but does not change p53 mRNA levels. Grape juice and red wine showed to be the most effective to increase TP53 mRNA levels, possibly due to a set of bioactive compounds that acts synergistically. Additionally, rich polyphenols beverages normalizes ATM mRNA levels, mainly in adipose tissue.

  • Effects of Artepelin-C Supplementation Present in Propolis Related to Inflammatory Processes in Physically Active Individuals

    The scientific literature shows that propolis has both anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities and is widely used in phytotherapic therapy. In this context, its main objective is to evaluate the inflammation recovery process in physically active individuals, from two groups, with or without propolis intake. Volunteers had their food, blood and pain parameters evaluated with or without propolis intake. The trial used seven male volunteers undergoing specific training in two 30-day protocols, one using placebo and another using propolis which contains Artepelin-C (chemically 3,5-diprenyl-p-coumarin acid, which is one of the main phenolic acids present in the green propolis extract). Participants between 18 and 35 years old under no medication should have had at least a 6-month workout. Performance physical tests were applied, body composition measurements and blood collection were taken and a 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaire were carried out at São Judas Tadeu University. All volunteers were asked to register their food intake during the 30-day protocol and data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Students T-test for paired samples at

  • Influence of Complementary Food Composition on Prevalence of Anemia among Children Aged 6-24 Months in West Cameroon

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for human health and inadequate intake may result in iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). In western region of Cameroon, 39 % of children under 59 months suffering from IDA. To reduce the high prevalence of IDA, the evaluation of nutritional potential of complementary food is very necessary to improve the nutritional status of the young children. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of complementary food composition on prevalence of anemia among young children living in West Cameroon. A food interview survey was carried out among 50 families (25 families with children having Hb ≥ 11 g/dL and 25 families having children with Hb ≤ 11 g/d/L). Ten complementary foods frequently consumed by children were recruited near the families. The amount of food nutrient intake per day was also determined. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) and the principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA shows that corn meal with vegetables was a dish with high level in iron, fats, dietary fiber and calcium. The complementary food based on corn meal with okra and those based on Irish potatoes with beans and fishes were higher in protein, ash, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc. The other dishes based on irish potatoes, rice, peanuts and corn meal porridge had high levels of carbohydrates. There was no significant difference between the daily iron, protein, calcium, and potassium intakes between anemic and non anemic children. However, food intake of anemic children was low compared with non-anemic children. The daily iron intake of the children ranged between 23.73 % and 42.27 % of their iron requirement daily. Their daily iron was generally poor. Though, most of their foods were of plant source whose nutrients are poorly bioavailable. Therefore, application of improved food…

  • Changes in Microbiological Quality of Table Spreads Produced from African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) Pulp during Storage

    African pear (Dacryodes edulis) pulp was extracted and pasteurized. The pasteurized pulp was homogenized with different levels of food grade additives to form table spreads of samples A to H while sample I was left without preservative. The spreads were packed in sealed glass containers and stored at room temperature (28±20C) for 4 weeks to evaluate the changes in microbiological quality of table spread during storage period. Samples were collected in a weekly interval to study the microbiological assay of the spread starting from week zero to the last week. High total bacteria count of 1.8x107CFU/ml was seen in sample I (spread without preservative) at week zero, this increased significantly to 8.1x108CFU/ml after 3 weeks of storage and TNTC (too numerous to count) after 4 weeks of storage at 28±20C. The least growth were observed in samples A and C with bacteria counts of 8.1x107CFU/ml and 3.5x107CFU/ml, respectively. The least fungi count of 2.0x106CFU/ml was noted in sample C after 4 weeks of storage while the highest fungi count of 4.5x107CFU/ml was seen in sample I after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature (28±20C). The suspected microorganisms based on their morphology were; E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella specie while fungi were Penicillium specie and Aspergillus specie. Deterioration sets in significantly after two weeks storage as total bacteria and fungi counts rose above 1.0×107 and 1.5×106, respectively. The microbiological quality of the samples was stable up to the second week of storage except sample I (without preservative).