Language and Linguistics

  • ASSESSING THE INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF PRINICIPALS IN GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS OF CITY ADMINSTRATION

    The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of instructional leadership practices of principals, identifying the dimension of instructional leadership principals give more priority in the management and leadership of schools and identifying the factors that affect instructional leadership. A descriptive survey design was employed in this study.5 (30%) full cycle primary and 2 (20%) secondary schools in Gondar City Administration were included in the study by using Simple random (lottery) sampling technique. All schools Principals, 7(100%), Vice Principals 7(100%) and 4(100%) Supervisors were included in the study through comprehensive sampling technique. In addition to this, 1 (33.33%) District education expert was included in the study by using simple random (lottery) sampling technique. From the total target population of 346 (100%) teachers in Gondar City Administration 106 (30.63%) of them were selected through stratified random sampling technique. After the size of sample teachers from each school was known, the selection of individual teacher sample was conducted by using simple random sampling (lottery) techniques. Questionnaire, focused group discussion and semi structured interview were the instruments used for data collection. The data collected through the questionnaire were analyzed by using percentage, descriptive statics (mean and standard deviation) and t-test statistical analyses procedures. The data collected from open ended questioners, interview and focused group discussion were analyzed by using narrative description to complement the quantitative data. The result of the study indicated that, the instructional leadership practices of principals in government schools of Gondar City Administration were moderate with the overall mean scores of 3.179(63.58%).But principals were not provided equal attentions to the three dimension of instructional leader ship. Accordingly, they were provided much attentions for promoting a positive school climate with the mean value of 3.428(70.68%), while in defining the school’s mission and managing the instructional program principals were…

  • Negative Impact of Globalization on Indigenous Cultures: the Case of Salale Oromo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    The aim of this article is to assess the negative impact of globalization on indigenous cultures in general and North Shewa in particular. The research is conducted based on qualitative methodology which used in-depth individual interview and observation which helps to raise a better understanding about negative impact of globalization on indigenous cultures. The key informants were taken from selected five towns of North Shewa zone of Oromia regional state which include Fitche town, Garba Guracha town, Gowa Tsion town, Tullu Milki town and Debre Tsige town of Ethiopia. The main objectives of this article is to explain the dimensions of the negative impact of globalization on indigenous Ethiopian cultures such as language, food style, dressing style, marriage, religion and history. In the process of globalization, there is an interaction of cultures and thus, there is a borrowing and transmission of cultures among societies. This is in itself not unusual. But unusual is the domination of one culture over the other. This is true of globalization which has generated a lot of controversy with regards to the rise of a global culture. In the rise of a global culture, Western norms are gradually being transported across the globe as acceptable way of behavior and Ethiopia is one of African countries affected in this regard. Those some valued indigenous Ethiopian culture has been diluted and some of them are totally cancelled. So, Ethiopia is fast running the risk of cultural atrophy consequent of the current logic of globalization. If pressing measures are not taken, perhaps indigenous Ethiopian cultures will soon run into extinction in the future.

  • Teachers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Differentiated Instruction: The Case of Department of Educational Planning and Management Faculty of Education University of Gondar

    Students’ populations are becoming more academically diverse due to ever increasing variety of learners in the heterogeneous classroom make-up. Effective teachers in contemporary classrooms have to learn to develop classroom routines that attend to learner variance in order to raise students’ achievement. Teachers need to focus on using sound instructional practices that will improve students’ performance for all types of learners. The purpose of the study was to investigate the teachers’ knowledge, attitude and practice of differentiated instruction in the case of faculty of education in the department of Educational Planning and Management (EdPM) at University of Gondar(UoG). The study employed qualitative research method with case study design which was used to answer the research questions raised. The research participants were dean of the faculty of education, the department head of EdPM and teachers at UoG. The participants were purposively selected. Interview and Focus Group Discussion were used to collect data. The data obtained were analyzed and interpreted using qualitative description and narration .The results of the analysis showed that teachers have positive attitude towards Differentiated Instruction (DI). However, the elements of DI were not properly practiced yet as expected for a number of reasons. It was then concluded that the prevailing practice of DI was poor. In addition to this, the trend of using the lecture method frequently and assessing students based on examinations as mere modes of teaching and assessment were emphasized at the faculty. To overcome this, it was suggested that the current mode of teaching which focuses on traditional lecture method should be changed. Moreover, the actual context of the faculty and its influence on the teaching learning process should be given due attention

  • Article Review on the Current Education policy and curriculum issues in Ethiopia: Trends that Reveal the Problem of Practicing Policy Provisions in Institutions

    Education and development are closely related endeavours. This is the main reason why we always say Education is the key instrument in the development of nations. Education, as a very important factor to human development, is of a high priority in the overall development endeavor of the government. Hence, it requires an appropriate direction to set a new process in motion and change the alarming situation. For this, a comprehensive education and training policy is formulated. It is having this due attention that the different researchers study on the education and training of Ethiopia and the different policy provisions for citizens. This paper is a review of twenty research studies conducted on Ethiopian education policy provisions and curriculum issues. Its purpose is to understand how much of the education policy provisions and curriculum issues were investigated in those researches and to reveal the possible problems of practicing the provisions in institutions. The examination of the main focus of each study revealed that the Current Ethiopian Education and Training Policy has addressed or incorporated the different provisions such as diversity, gender, language, issues of multicultural education, and mother tongue education. But most of the policy provisions were not sufficiently institutionalized and implemented as expected. Possible reasons for the problem of practicing the different policy provisions in institutions and the way forward are discussed.

  • Article Critique entitled: “The Analysis of the Opinions of School Directors about Their Knowledge of the Curriculums and Their Support and Control in the Implementation”

    The present paper offers a critical review of the article published under the title of “The Analysis of the Opinions of School Directors about Their Knowledge of the Curriculums and Their Support and Control in the Implementation”. The reviewed article aimed at analyzing the opinions of school directors related to their levels of recognition, comprehension and explanation, along with their support and their supervisory duties in the process of the implementation of the curriculum. This study was conducted with a qualitative research approach. In this study, phenomenological research design was used since the subject of this study is to make sense of the experiences and the behaviors of school directors related to their comprehension of curriculum, their support in the application and their inspection task in the implementation of the curriculum. In this study, a semi structured interview form consisting of three basic questions was used as data collection tool along with the interview technique in which the probing of these questions are made. The research group is determined in terms of simple sampling method and consists of 28 secondary school directors. The data collected through interviews is analyzed through content analysis. Hence, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and methodological approaches to qualitative research sought to critically appraise the article. Accordingly, the article was written in line with qualitative research approach and it had some limitations that lessen its empirical power.

  • Cultural Facsimile in the Translation of Jiangxi Nuo Culture

    The translation of nuo culture, in its nature, is one of intercultural translation. At present, the main problems of the translation of nuo culture in China are the deficiency in cultural connotation reproduction and the inappropriateness in the translation of culture-specific terms. Based on the analysis and comparison of the translated texts of exorcising culture in Jiangxi province, this paper points out that the key to the successful translation of nuo culture is to accurately reproduce the connotation of nuo and to fully consider the reading psychology of target language readers. Therefore, translators should strive to find the balance between reflecting the original text’s differences to promote native culture and satisfying the reading habits and needs of the target readers to expand its acceptance among target readers.

  • Analysis to the Violation of Cooperative Principles in Daily Conversation and the Production of Humor

    Humor is the flash of one’s knowledge, talent, wisdom, and inspiration in language expression as well as the ability to grasp “funny or witty imagination.”.Humorous language, like a lubricant, can effectively reduce the “coefficient of friction” between people. The principle of Cooperation was put forward by Grice, a famous American language philosopher, in a speech at Harvard University in 1967. Grice believes that in the process of people’s communication, the two sides of the dialogue seem to follow a certain principle intentionally or unintentionally in order to complete the communicative task effectively. To make the communication activities go smoothly, the communicative parties always follow the cooperative principle in the process of language communication; But sometimes, in order to achieve some kind of communicative purpose, people usually break the cooperative principles and then complete the conversation in a humorous way. This paper will analyze how daily conversation can achieve humor by violating the cooperative principle. Furthermore, it is proved that the violation of the four maxims has a strong explanatory power to the emergence of humorous language.

  • Health in the third age: therapeutic approach through integration and complementary practices

    Introduction: Healthy aging is considered a process of adaptation to the changes that occur throughout life, which allows the elderly to maintain their physical, mental and social well-being, being strongly related to the maintenance of a good old age. Based on healthy aging, integrative and complementary practices seek to stimulate natural mechanisms of disease prevention and health promotion, with emphasis on welcoming listening, developing the therapeutic link and integrating the human being with the environment and society. Objectives: To analyze cognitive complaints in the elderly attended at the Center for Integrative and Complementary Practices of João Pessoa municipality and their respective rehabilitation methods. Methodology: This is a field research, with a quantitative approach. Data collection was carried out at the Center for Integrative and Complementary Practices Equilibrium of Being. The sample was composed of 14 therapists, who answered a questionnaire containing 7 questions related to the topic. The research was developed after approval of the Ethics Committee in Research of the University Center of João Pessoa (UNIPÊ), approval nº 1.876.467. Results and Discussion: With regard to the prevalence of cognitive complaints found in the elderly already attended by the therapists, the following symptoms were highlighted: Difficulty of concentration 100% (n=14), Alteration of memory 72% (n=10) and Difficulty when speaking 43% (n=6). For the treatment of the 3 mentioned complaints, the practices of Floral Therapy 78%, Acupuncture 57%, Yoga 43% and Tai Chi Chuan 22% were applied. With an increase in the elderly population and the search for a healthy life, we can observe that the alternative methods are presented as a very promising practice and that is gaining strength among the adepts of complementary therapies. Conclusion: Working in a comprehensive way, the practices seek the balance of health, contributing to the patient’s well-being in a natural way.

  • Memorial office with a sources of phono-audiological approach: experience report

    Introduction: Aging is a physiological process that brings changes in several aspects, which reflects both physical changes and changes in the cognitive aspects related to attention, concentration and memory, being common the presence of deviations in communication skills due to the implications of senescence. The growth of the elderly population has been occurring in a significant way in several countries, a fact that should foment the development of strategies to promote greater autonomy, independence and social participation, providing the guarantee of an active and healthy aging. Objectives: To maximize the performance of mnemonic functions in the elderly with a focus on the speech-language approach aimed at promoting an adequate linguistic performance, aiming in a holistic way to favor a better quality of life for the elderly. Methods: This study describes activities developed in memory workshops for groups of elderly people belonging to the communities that receive the support of trainees in the public health service of the municipality of João Pessoa-PB. The methodology started from activities that included capacities of concentration, attention, memory and reasoning. The dynamics were: surprise box to stimulate the narration associated with the object name; colors in circles for logical sequence; game play music; sequence of motor and sensorial memory. Results: All the elderly actively participated in the proposals, showing interest during the dynamics and good interaction with the group, highlighting their individual differences that come from factors such as health condition, life history and socioeconomic and cultural structures. Conclusion: It is noteworthy the importance of strategies aimed at such population, as they favor a better performance in the daily, in the individual and social activities, allowing the active and healthy result of the physiological process of aging. It is worth highlighting the relevance of the speech-language pathology in this phase, since it provides the conformity…

  • Speech therapy intervention in relation of the patient with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy-experience report

    Introduction: Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy, commonly known as cerebral palsy, is one of the most common childhood disorders, arising in early childhood. It is characterized by being a persistent disorder in several structures and functions (of tonus, posture and movement), causing a series of limitations regarding the accomplishment of functional activities. Objective: To report the experience of the practical activities of the compulsory supervised internship of speech therapy course in relation to the patient with Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy. Methodology: During the supervised stage, actions were carried out for speech-language intervention in patients with CNPE, where was carried out anamnesis, evaluation, speech-language therapy, guidelines and, when necessary, the patients were referred to the other specialties according to the needs observed. During the speech-language evaluation process, the analysis of the development of language aspects, communicative skills, evaluation of the functions and structures of the stomatoglossognatic system and auditory perception through musical resources and sound instruments were made. The intervention occurred on a weekly basis, with half an hour of duration, being stimulated the aspects of the language and worked the orofacial myofunctional structures. Results: It was possible to observe that all the patients had enough communicative intention, development of language appropriate to the age group, however, they presented alterations in the stomatoglossognatic system with impairment of mobility, sensitivity and tonicity of the phonoarticulatory organs, emphasizing: orofacial hypotonia, with interference of the musculature for the complete absence of lip seal, protrusion and lateralization of the tongue and phonemic articulation. Discussion: Rehabilitation for speech-language disorders in individuals with Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy will depend on the type and degree of overall motor impairment, comprehension and language aspects of each patient. Conclusion: It is necessary the speech-language and multidisciplinary intervention in an early, effective and humanized way, favoring the development of these skills and seeking to promote…