Ethnobotanical importance and phytochemical analyses of some selected medicinal plants used in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
The study investigated the ethnobotanical importance, phytochemical and proximate compositions of some selected medicinal plants such as Enantia chlorantha (Annonaceae), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), Telfaria occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) and Morinda lucida (Rubiaceae) in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The review of the folk knowledge of the plants revealed that they were used in treating ailments such as gastrointestinal infections, malaria fever, typhoid, dermatitis, ringworm, jaundice, dysentery and used as antiseptic, digestive stimulant, blood tonic and bloJHMR-CODEod booster. The qualitative screening of the plants revealed that all the plants contained a considerable amount of bio-active ingredients such as alkaloids, Saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, Terpenoids and total phenols. However, Momordica charantia has the highest number of alkaloids (20.68±0.27), Saponins (11.40±0.59) while Morinda lucida and Telfaria occidentalis have the lowest number of alkaloids (6.62±0.34) and Saponins (1.24±0.09). Similarly, Enantia chlorantha has the highest amount of flavonoids (15.56±0.00) and tannins (0.44±0.05). Morinda lucida stem bark has the lowest number of tannins (0.03±0.00) and flavonoids (0.94±0.00). Morinda lucida leaf has the highest amount of cardiac glycosides (0.07±0.03) while Morinda lucida stem bark and Momordica charantia does not have cardiac glycosides. Telfaria occidentalis has Terpenoids (0.09±0.00). Similarly, total phenols are high in Morinda lucida stem bark (0.58±0.00) while is low in Momordica charantia (0.21±0.00). The proximate composition showed that Telfaria occidentalis had the highest percentage of crude protein (31.49±1.32) and lowest percentage of crude fiber (9.08±0.27). Enantia chlorantha had the highest crude fat (5.17±0.24) and carbohydrates (50.31±1.56). Momordica charantia had the lowest percentage of total ash (2.67±0.16). Morinda lucida leaf had the highest percentages of moisture (10.10±0.14) and total ash (11.24±0.42) while Morinda lucida stem bark had the highest percentage of crude fiber (53.49±1.98) and lowest percentages of moisture (9.00±0.28), crude protein (5.70±0.14), crude fat (0.45±0.16) and carbohydrates (24.93±0.21).
Burns Inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus Healed by Leaf Sheath Extract of Pisang Ambon (Musa acuminata)
Using parts of banana to cure diseases is a common practice for people in homeland of genus Musa. However, scientific researches on biomedical effects of a specific banana cultivar still leaves many questions. This study is intended to find out the healing effect of leaf sheath extract of pisang Ambon or Gros Michel banana, a non-Cavendish cultivar of Musa acuminata, on burn wound intentionally innoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. Eighteen male rabbits were divided into six groups: P0, P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 each consisting of three rabbits. P0 is rabbits that received no treatment as the negative control; P1, P2, P3 and P4 respectively are received banana extract of 6.25%, 12.5%, 55%, and 50%; P5 are given bioplacenton ointment as the positive control. To inflict burn wound, the withers area on the animal’s back were shaved and anticepted using 70% ethanol and 10% iodine. On the shaved skin, burns was made by placing a heated brass coin weighted 10 g and a diameter of 2 cm, at 200oC for 5 seconds. All treatments were given topically three times daily. The recovery of burns is measured every three days for 14 days and the healing criteria were based on wound diameter changes. The results showed the extracts of pisang Ambon at the concentration of 12.5% and 25% are able to totally heal the wound on the day 14. While extracts of 6.25 % and 50% has not provided a complete recovery on day 14 but still give a significant healing in comparison to negative control. Thus, leaft sheath extract of Gros Michel banana is effectively heal burns infected by S. aureus.
Pharmacological studies on the renal and hepatic effect of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus in rats
Objective: To investigate the renal and hepatic effect of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus using experimental rats. Methods: Three groups comprising five rats each were used. Group II and III received 50 and 100 mg/kg of extract respectively. Group I served as negative control and received only normal saline (5 ml/kg). All administration was done once daily for 28 days. Urea and creatinine for renal effect were determined using Quimica Clinica applicado (QCA Test Kit, Spain); while hepatic marker enzymes were evaluated using Assay Kits (Randox Laboratories Ltd., United Kingdom BT 294 QY). Histopathological evaluation was carried out using light microscopy. Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Turkey-Kramer test were employed to assess significance of difference due to administration of extract and the control. Results: Treatment with extract did not produce significantly (P>0.05) changes in the hepatic marker enzymes when compared with the control. The mean creatinine levels showed non-significantly (P>0.05) differences when compared with the control. At 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited significantly (p
Traditional medicine is the summation of knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs and experiences which are indigenous to different cultures. Sirka (Vinegar) has a long historical background and besides its usage as a common condiment, food ingredient, preservative, flavoring and culinary agent it has also been extensively exploited as a potent medicinal substance. The use of vinegar to fight infections and other acute conditions dates back to Hippocrates who recommended a vinegar preparation named sikanjabeen for cleaning ulcerations and for the treatment of sores. Sikanjabeen was also used in conventional system of medicine by the name of oxymel. According to Unani classical literature, it is obtained after fermentation of various substances such as grapes, sugarcane, dried grapes, figs, jamun, honey, onions, grains etc and prepared by a specific procedure in which the juice of ingredient is taken in a vessel and kept in sunlight, until proper fermentation of that liquid takes place. Various actions and clinical indications have been elaborated in the Unani classical literature and some properties namely Anti-infective, Antihypertensive, Cardio-protective, Antitumor, Antiglycemic, Antioxidant and Antitubercular activities have been revalidated in the light of recent scientific researches. A number of clinical researches have also been performed to explore medicinal properties of Sirka (Vinegar). This review provides significant information on Sirka (Vinegar) as a traditional asset and furthers the scientific validation of pre existing facts.
Different Levels of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Application for Growth, Flowering and Yield Attributes of Glori lily (Gloriosa superba L.)
Field experiment were conducted at farmer’s field, Devanur village, Ariyalur District of Tamil Nadu during 2008 to study the Different Levels of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Application for Growth, Flowering and Yield Attributes of glori lily. There were Five different treatments viz., Control (T0), 100 per cent recommended N (T1), 75 per cent recommended N (T2), 50 per cent recommended N (T3) and 25 per cent recommended N (T4). The treatments were replicated four adopting RBD design. The growth and yield attributes of glori lily viz., plant height, leaf area index, number of primary branches plant-1, number of secondary branches plant-1, number of tertiary branches plant1,drymatter production (kg ha-1), days to fifty per cent flowering, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1 and hundred seed weight (g), were favorably increased by the application of 100 per cent recommended N (T1). Seed and tuber yield (Kg ha-1) were greatly increased and the maximum seed and tuber yield were recorded. The uptake of NPK by glori lily was significantly increased by the above treatment combination. Application of 100 per cent recommended N (120 kg ha-1) (T1) gave the highest Gross income, Net income and return per rupee invested. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that inorganic use of 100 per cent recommended N (120 kg ha-1) is found to be an appropriate agro-technique for augmenting the productivity and profitability of glori lily without altering the soil fertility. It is a basic constituent in all proteins, enzymes, chlorophyll, certain parts of nucleus and hormone. The supply of nitrogen is related to carbohydrates utilization for growth and development process.
Insecticidal Efficacy of Plumeria Species Leaf Extract on Two Economically Important Insects Populations: Mosquito (Anopheles) and Bean Weevils (Callosobruchus Maculatus)
Insecticidal efficacy of two Plumeria species (P. rubra and P. obtusa) foliar extracts was tested on mosquito and beans weevil populations. The extent of efficacy was analysed using linear regression model. The aim was to determine if the plant, as a safer biological control method, could possibly solve the problem of increasing populations of these insects implicated in malaria ailment and food shortages respectively. Completely randomized experimental designs were set up with 4 interaction effects. Each treatment had 5 levels of concentration applied on the test organism and replicated 4 times. Number of dead organisms was recorded at a constant time interval. Percentage mortality was computed at 48hrs. Correlation coefficient R and Coefficient of determination R2 were computed. Equations connecting the dependent variable (mortality) and independent variable (extract concentration) were formulated with corresponding t-values at 95% confidence interval. Residual statistics was also computed. Explanatory power of the extract-mortality model was depicted by analysis of variance. Reliability Statistics of the overall result was tested using the Cronbach’s Alpha. As a result, P. obtusa yielded mosquito mortality rate of 86.2% while P. rubra was 88.75%. P. obtusa and P. rubra accounted for 90% and 95% weevil mortality respectively. Correlation coefficients were very high (Plumeria–mosquito =0.970; Plumeria-weevil =0.968) yielding high coefficients of determination R2 (94% and 93.7% respectively). The two linear regression equations thus allows for accurate predictability of the mortality rate of the insects with 95% confidence limit. Mosquito mortality rate= -7.812 + 38.875 x (Extract concentration). Weevil mortality rate=-4.875 + 39.250 x (Extract concentration). The explanatory power of the two models is significantly high (p
Study on Vegetative Propagation using bulbs of Wild onion [Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth] in Herbal Garden for Ex-situ conservation
Plants are showing variable tendency in their morphological structure and also in their habit, habitat and presence in nature. These are also performing a major role in construction of biodiversity in certain ecological areas. Fr seasonal appearances in nature plants are showing diversity in their propagation rate and modes. Seeds are important structure developed after fertilization in plants but the plants which does not includes seeds in their life are well potent to propagate using their vegetative parts and/or by the modified structures like bulb, tuber, rhizome etc. Wild onion [Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth] includes bulbs inside of soil which after maturation produces many small bulbs. These adventitious buds are separated from mother bulb carefully without damage the bulbs and are used as a plant source to develop new individuals of this plant. The current experiment was done in prepared poly bags (filled with soil, sand and manure mixture equally) followed by the proper supply of the water. During of the experimentation necessary facilities provided as per need of the developing bulbs to convert in to new plant. Above rapid propagation was made in herbal garden aimed for its propagation as well as for ex-situ conservation.
Bak Foong pill is a well known prescription to treat gynecological disorders in China. It comprises with more than 20 Chinese herbs including Wuji, Antler, Turtle Shell, Oysters, Sang Cuttlebone, Ginseng, Astragalus, Angelica, White Peony Root, Cyperus, Aspartame, Licorice, Rehmannia, Chuanxiong, silver Bupleurum, Salvia, Yam and Gorgon et al.. Based on the theory of Chinese Medicine, its indications include Qi and blood deficiency, frail, weak waist, irregular menstruation and uterine bleeding vaginal discharge. Previous studies mainly focused on reporting Bak Foong pill. In this review, we will introduce Bak Foong capsule, a new type of Bak Foong preparation, and compare the difference between Bak Foong Pill and Bak Foong capsule based on their prescription composition, indications and modern clinical application. In conclusion, Bak Foong capsule has the same function as Bak Foong pill although Bak Foong capsule has less Chinese herbs. More studies on Bak Foong capsule will help us treat diseases like uterine bleeding vaginal discharge and know the possible difference between Bak Foong pill and Bak Foong capsule.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which can open under both physiology and pathophysiology, is an important diffusion barrier to brain. It can block many componds from blood and protect the brain. BBB is mainly built by cerebral endothelium, tight junctions, adherens junctions, astrocytes, and pericytes and extracellular matrix. Each element plays specific roles to protect the brain. Currently, one of the limitations to treat CNS diseases is that most drugs can not pass through the BBB and can not directly affect the focus of infection. So drugs which could help BBB open would help us to treat CNS diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been wildly used in China to treat all kinds of diseases, and some of them, like Borneol, Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Moschus, Storax and Benzoin, has notably dual effects on the permeability of the BBB. They can both reduce and increase the the permeability of the BBB. More studies on the effects on Chinese herbal medicine’s effects on BBB may help us out of the limitation that brain drugs can not pass through the BBB.
Stroke is one of the primary cause of long- term disability. Although mounting studies focused on stroke research, currently, only available treatment for stroke is t-PA, with the limitation of a very narrow therapeutic window because of the risk of hemorrhage. So, new therapeutic methods for stoke are expected. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat stroke with a history of many centuries and is stilling wildly used in China. This review focuses on reporting the research progress of the Chinese herbal medicine including Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Borneol, Moschus and other herbal medicine in stroke. The Conclusion is Chinese herbal medicine including Acorus tatarinowii Schott, Borneol and Moschus could reduce stroke injury and help brain recovery after stroke. More studies in Chinese herbal medicine and stroke may help us to develop a useful treatment for stroke.