International Journal of Nanoparticle Research


Processing and Characterization of Vacuum-Free CuInSe2 Thin Films from Nanoparticle-Precursors using Novel Temperature Treatment Techniques

Research Article of International Journal of Nanoparticle Research Processing and Characterization of Vacuum-Free CuInSe2 Thin Films from Nanoparticle-Precursors using Novel Temperature Treatment Techniques Matthias Schuster*, Philipp Sisterhenn, Lorenz Graf, Peter J. Wellmann Materials Department 6 (i-MEET), Martensstr. 7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) The objective of this work is the processing and characterization of a dense CuInSe2 solar-cell-absorber-layer based on nanoparticulate precursors. Bimetallic copper-indium- and elemental selenium-nanoparticles were synthesized by wet-chemical processes and then dispersed in organic solvents as nano-inks. These inks were then printed into different layer-stacks on a molybdenum coated float-glass-substrate via doctor-blading. The temperature treatment to transform these layer-stacks into dense CISe thin films was investigated, using a face-to-face technique and mechanically applied pressure or the repetition of coating and annealing. All absorber layers were characterized with SEM, EDX and XRD. Dense, coarse grained CuInSe2 layers with a thickness ≈ 7 µm were formed and the application of mechanical pressure shows potential to reduce thickness and sinter together the nanoparticles to large grains of ca. 3 µm in size. The face-to-face-annealing ensured keeping a stoichiometric ratio of (Cu+In) / Se ≈ 1, and can help reducing the content of oxides, even when the annealing is performed in ambient atmosphere. With a repetition of coating and annealing, dense CISe layers could be produced at low temperature of only 350 °C. Keywords:  CuInSe2, solar cell absorber, nanoparticles, vacuum-free, face-to-face annealing, uniaxial pressure ...

Hydrophobically-modified Chitosan Microspheres for Release of Diosgenin

Research Article of International Journal of Nanoparticle Research Hydrophobically-modified Chitosan Microspheres for Release of Diosgenin Javier Perez Quinones1,*, Oliver Brüggemann1, Carlos Peniche Covas2 1,* Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria. 2 University of Havana, Center of Biomaterials, Ave. Universidad s/n entre G y Ronda, Vedado, 10400 La Habana, Cuba. Chitosan microspheres (CS) prepared by water-in-oil emulsion/glutaraldehyde cross-linking-evaporation and simple coacervation/cross-linking with sodium tripolyphosphate were covalently linked to diosgenin hemiesters. The diosgenin content found using elemental analysis was ca. 6 to 42 wt-% and it showed dependence on the type of diosgenin hemiesters and on the method of preparation of the CS microspheres. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the hydrophobic functionalization of CS with the diosgenin hemiesters by amide bond formation. The effect of CS modification with diosgenin on the thermal properties was also studied using differential scanning calorimetry. Microsphere sizes determined using optical microscopy ranged from 60 to 700 um, while scanning electron microscopy depicted morphology dependent on the selected method to obtain CS microspheres. In vitro release studies performed in aqueous medium indicated a drug release dependence on the diosgenin hemiester linkers, the steroid content and the acidity of the solution. Sustained diosgenin release in acidic aqueous solution (pH 6.0) reached from 34 to 81% after 48 h. Keywords:  chitosan microspheres; diosgenin; controlled release ...

Solution Phase growth of Tin Oxide (SnO2) Nanostructures under Controlled Synthesis Conditions

Research Article of International Journal of Nanoparticle Research Solution Phase growth of Tin Oxide (SnO2) Nanostructures under Controlled Synthesis Conditions M. A. Khan1,2, Hasan Mahmood*3,4, Bilal Mohuddin1, Tariq Iqbal1, Assad Qayyum1, Ishaq Ahmed5, Waleed Maqbool1 1Department of Physics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad 13100, Pakistan; 2High-Tech Lab., University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad 13100, Pakistan; 3Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Defense road Lahore, Pakistan; 4Department of Physics, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY, 12222 USA; 5National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus Islamabad, Pakistan Tin dioxide (SnO2) nanostructures have been synthesized successfully via solution phase growth technique. Effect of reaction temperature, time and surfactant on morphology, size and bandgap of nanomaterials has been studied. The rods, flowers and spheres like morphologies of SnO2 have been observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Structural analysis of synthesized SnO2 has been carried out by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). XRD peaks revealed the tetragonal structure of SnO2 nanocrystals. The increase in grain size was observed with increase in reaction time and reaction temperature of synthesis process. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has been employed to study the vibrational modes. Optical properties of the SnO2 nanostructures have also been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. The energy bandgap of the as prepared SnO2 nanocrystals was estimated between 3.76 eV and 4.05 eV. It has been observed that the bandgap of the synthesized SnO2 samples decreased with increase in particle size. This phenomenon can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect at smaller particle size. Keywords: Crystalline SnO2; Nanorods and Nanoflowers; Bandgap; Quantum Confinement ...

Cytotoxicity Studies on Naproxen and Piroxicam Nanoformulations

Research Article of International Journal of Nanoparticle Research Cytotoxicity Studies on Naproxen and Piroxicam Nanoformulations Sandeep Patnaika,b L.A. Avinash Chunduria,b, Aditya Kurdekarb , Venkataramaniah Kamisettib* aAndhra Pradesh Medtech Zone Ltd., Vishakhapatnam, India bLaboratories for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology(LNAN) Research, Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam, India Caco-2 cells were used as in vitro models to assess the cell viability characteristics of the carriers Soluplus®, Gelucire 50/13 and PVP K25 and the nanoformulations of Naproxen and Piroxicam. The assessment of cell viability was done using the tetrazolium salt based MTT assay. Gelucire 50/13 and its NFs were observed to have slightly higher cytotoxicity than PVP and Soluplus® and their respective NFs. All the NFs were observed to follow the cytotoxicity trend of the polymers. Our results show that no significant decrease in cell viability was seen until 0.01% concentration of Gelucire 50/13 for 12-h exposure. The NFs as well as the polymers alone had no significant effect on the viability of Caco-2 cells below 0.01% concentrations. The intestine has a protective mucous layer, whereas the cell culture monolayers do not. The intestinal tissues also have more capacity to recover from trauma than the cultured cells. Hence the present NFs can be expected to show lesser cytotoxicity when subjected to in vivo studies. Keywords: Caco-2 cells, Cytotoxicity, Nanoformulations, Polymers, MTT assay ...

Prof. Dr. Alireza Heidari
Full Professor and Academic Tenure of Chemistry & Director of the BioSpectroscopy Core Research Laboratory at Faculty of Chemistry, California South University, USA & President of American International Standards Institute, USA

Dr. Suban K Sahoo
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Chemistry, S.V. National Institute of Technology (SVNIT) Ichchanath

Dr. Prakash Prajapat
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Mehsana Urban Institute of Sciences, Ganpat University

Dr Soumya Mukherjee
Assistant Professor, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University

Dr. Pragati Kumar
Assistant Professor, Department of Nano Sciences & Materials, Central University of Jammu

Dr. Ha, Chang-Sik
Distinguished Professor, Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea

Dr Nasrallah M. Deraz
Professor, Advanced Nanomaterials Chemistry and Catalysis, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Dr. Boumediene Haddad
Associate professor (lecturer and Scientific Researcher), Department of Chemistry, Dr. Moulay Taher University

Dr. Azeez Abdullah Barzinjy
PhD (Materials Science), Department of Physics, College of Education, Salahaddin University –Erbil

Dr. Dibya Prakash Rai
Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, Mizoram, India-796001


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1.K. Vijaya Kumar,R.Sridhar, D.Ravinder. Dielectric properties of Chromium substituted Nickel nano ferrites. International Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2018; 2:6. DOI:10.28933/ijnr-2018-01-0302 
2.Muhammad Arshad Chaudhry, Liaqat Ali, Khalid Mahmood Ghauri, Javed Iqbal .Development and Characterization of Nanoparticle Metal Matrix Composites: (Al 2024-SiC NP). International Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2018; 2:7. DOI:10.28933/ijnr-2018-04-1901

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International Journal of nanoparticle research

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