In Vivo effects of dosage of leaf, bark and root extracts of V. paradoxa on diarhoea-induced albino rats
In vivo study of different dosages (50mg/kg and 100mg/kg) of various solvent extracts (water, methanol, omidun and sterile omidun) of Leaf, Root and Bark of Vitellaria paradoxa were examined on male and female albino rats induced with diarrhoea- causing microorganisms (Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC ATCC 43889), Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 43887), Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922). The rats were randomly assigned into four groups (A-D), group A rats infected with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC ATCC 43887) and later treated with ciprofloxacin, group B rats were infected with EPEC only, group C rats were infected with EPEC and treated with 50mg/kg concentration of methanol extract of leaf of V. paradoxa, while group D rats were not infected nor treated. The procedure was repeated for other test diarrhoea-causing microorganisms and 100mg/kg concentrations of all the solvent extracts of root and bark respectively. The rats were observed hourly for six hours for the presence or absence of diarrhoea. Haematological studies was conducted on the blood samples of the rats. All extracts of V. paradoxa have anti-diarrhoea effect at both concentrations tested against all the tested diarrhoeagenic bacteria. Although the type of diarrhoea-inducing microorganisms did not significantly affect the activity of the plant parts and 50mg/ml concentration of water extract exhibited more significant reduction in diarrhoea symptoms than 100mg/ml concentration of other solvent extracts. Bark and leaf extracts of V. paradoxa was also more effective at reducing symptoms of diarrhoea in the experimental rats than root extracts. Levels of the major blood parameters (White Blood Cell, Red Blood Cell, Haemoglobulin and Packed Cell Volume) were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the rats treated with the plant parts but slightly higher in rats treated with bark, followed by root and leaves.
This study examines the personality and contributions of Chief Obafemi Awolowo to socio – economic development of Nigerian between 1948 and 1966.. The study found out that Chief Obafemi Awolowo was a Nigerian nationalist and statesman who played a significant role in Nigeria’s independence movement during First and Second Republics. The study notes that Chief Obafemi Awolowo was thrice a major contender for Nigeria’s highest office. He was a key player in the intra-party power tussle that erupted in 1962 that led to disturbances in Western Region House of Assembly. Also, the study examines major challenges faced by Chief Obafemi Awolowo and how he eventually became the Federal Commissioner of Finance and the Vice Chairman of the Federal Executive Council in 1966. The study employs primary and secondary source materials including books, journal articles and other scholarly publications to interrogate the study. It concludes that Awolowo was responsible for much of the progressive social legislation that made Nigeria a modern nation today.
Nowadays, ageing in a healthy way is one of the greatest challenges of our era. The management of emotions is a powerful predictor of psychological well-being and health during all periods of life. However, to date, such evidence cannot be extended accurately to the older adult population since young adults have been the primary target of valid and reliable measures. Therefore the aim of this article is to analyse the validity and reliability of the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS) in a sample of middle-aged and older adults, and its relation to personality traits and subjective well-being. Findings show that the TMMS represents a useful tool in examining social and psychological adjustment of older adults. The TMMS-22 will allow the analysis of emotional regulation development, explaining differences in psychosocial adaptation and perceived emotional competence. Finally, a TMMS for the older adult population is a complementary resource to the ability measures of EI and encourages increasing awareness of emotional abilities and self-evaluation in an individual.
Novel Technique In Strangulated Para-Umbilical Hernia Repair Under Local Anaesthesia Block For High-Risk Patient : Case Report
Background: Strangulated hernia is one of the most emergency cases that require surgery under general anaesthesia. Here, we present a rare case of strangulated PUH repair done under rectus sheath block (RSB). Case Presentation: We report here a case of a 74-year-old male with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease with ejection fraction 20% who presented to our ER with peri-umbilical hernia (PUH) swelling and constipation. On examination, incarcerated PUH was found with massive ascites. Under local anaesthesia, rectus sheet block was performed. During midline laparotomy, there was a supra-umbilical hernia defect of about 3 cm narrow neck containing bowel loop about 5-7cm in length, initially appeared ischemic then regain Its normal colour, primary repair done for the defect. No complication was observed in the post-operative period. Discussion: Strangulated hernia is an emergency case that requires surgical intervention, hernia reduction and resection of necrotic tissue if needed. PUH repair as a day case by using local anaesthesia is a good option as it has advantages of low recurrence and infection rate. For patients with 3 to 4 ASA class, general or spinal anaesthesia is risky, and RSB is the best alternative option in such high-risk patients. Conclusion: Rectus sheath block is a good option for strangulated PUH patients.
In this paper, some methods of lightning protection measures are expounded in this paper, and then the influence of grounding resistance on ground resistance with current changing with current is revised by means of incomplete consideration of the influence factors of the impact grounding resistance in the standard.
Aim: The objective of the study was to assess pharmacists’ counseling practices from the patient perspective using the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Medication Counseling Behavior Guidelines (MCBG) questionnaire. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted over 4 months in the outpatients section of the pharmacy department in two tertiary care hospitals: King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, and King Fahad Medical City. Participants were randomly selected to complete the USP-MCBG questionnaire, and gave their full consent to the data collector. USP-MCBG questionnaire is an interactive approach between the patient and the pharmacist, which takes into account the patient’s special needs, beliefs and perceptions about medication use .The questionnaire included 33 items with a two-point response scale. The questionnaire was divided into four sections corresponding to the four stages of the medication counseling process. Results: During the study period, 520 subjects were enrolled and of these, 486 responded to our questionnaire (response rate: 93%). The study population was gender balanced; most respondents (88%) were Saudi nationals, and 49% reported having at least high school education. There were no differences between the socio-demographic profiles of participants at the two study sites. The overall mean USP-MCBG score of satisfaction was 3.18 ± 0.11 (highest score is 5). Within subsections of the questionnaire, ‘Management of treatment’ scored the highest (1.14 ± 0.05) and ‘Communication’ scored the lowest (0.35 ± 0.03). In terms of medication counseling, more than >80% of patients had a positive perception and were satisfied with the performance of outpatient pharmacists. At almost all stages of the counseling process, there was a slightly inversely proportional relationship between patient age and satisfaction with pharmacist performance.Conclusion: Using the USP-MCB guidelines, patients’ perception of and satisfaction with pharmacists counseling in the outpatient setting was positive. Greater effort is needed to ensure effective counseling services in particular…